Skip to main content

Table 2 Risk estimates reported by included articles (n = 14)

From: Obesity, hypertension and diuretic use as risk factors for incident gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

Risk factor Author and year Sample
size
Cases of
incident gout
Outcome
measure
Exposure Risk estimate
       Minimal adjustment model Maximal adjustment model
Obesity Choi et al. (2005) [14]a 47,150 730 RR (95% CI) BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 at age 21 2.14 (1.37–3.32)b 1.66 (1.06–2.60)1
  Bhole et al. (2010) [15]a 1951 200 RR (95% CI) BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in men 3.50 (2.30–5.32)b 2.90 (1.89–4.44)2
   2476 104   BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in women 3.52 (2.16–5.72)b 2.74 (1.65–4.58)2
  McAdams-DeMarco et al. (2011) [16]a 15,533 517 RR (95% CI) BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 at age 21 2.06 (1.38–3.07)c 1.82 (1.21–2.73)3
  Maynard et al. (2012) [17]a 6263 106 RR (95% CI) BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 at age 25 4.30 (2.14–8.64)b 2.84 (1.33–6.09)4
Hypertension Prior et al. 1987 [10] 1705 46 OR (95% CI) Systolic blood pressure 0.03 (0.02–0.05)
      Diastolic blood pressure 0.05 (0.03–0.07)
  Roubenoff et al. (1991) [11]a 1271 60 RR (95% CI) Hypertension 2.70 (1.45–5.13)
  Hochberg et al. (1995) [12]a 923 60 RR (95% CI) Hypertension (incident) 3.78 (2.18–6.58) 3.20 (1.80–5.68)5
  Grodzicki et al. (1997) [13]a 2128 45 RR (95% CI) Hypertension 3.93 (1.60–9.70)
  Choi et al. (2005) [14]a 47,150 730 RR (95% CI) Hypertension 3.07 (2.64–3.56)b 2.31 (1.96–2.72)6
  Bhole et al. (2010) [15]a 1951 200 RR (95% CI) Hypertension—men 2.39 (1.73–3.29)b 1.59 (1.12–2.24)7
   2476 104   Hypertension—women 2.91 (1.74–4.88)b 1.82 (1.06–3.14)7
  Chen et al. (2012) [18]a 60,181 1341 HR (95% CI) Hypertension—men 1.74 (1.54–1.95)b 1.32 (1.17–1.48)8
   72,375 265   Hypertension—women 2.11 (1.59–2.79)b 1.34 (1.02–1.77)8
  McAdams-DeMarco et al. (2012) [25]a 10,872 274 HR (95% CI) Hypertension (time-varying) 2.87 (2.24–3.78) 2.00 (1.54–2.61)9
  Pan et al. (2015) [22]a 31,137 163
201
HR (95% CI) Hypertension—men
Hypertension—women
-
-
1.67 (1.33–2.09)10
2.08 (1.66–2.60)10
  Burke et al. (2016) [23]a 2956
3809
120
110
HR (95% CI) Hypertension—men
Hypertension—women
1.33 (0.84–2.09)
1.64 (1.02–2.64)
-
-
Diuretic use Grodzicki et al. (1997) [13]a 2128 45 RR (95% CI) Diuretic use (and raised diastolic blood pressure) 6.25 (2.40–16.70)
  Choi et al. (2005) [14]a 47,150 730 RR (95% CI) Diuretic use 3.37 (2.75–4.12)b 1.77 (1.42–2.20)11
  Bhole et al. (2010) [15]a 4427 304 RR (95% CI) Diuretic use in men 4.31 (3.06–6.08)b 3.41 (2.38–4.89)12
      Diuretic use in women 3.23 (2.13–4.91) 2.39 (1.53–3.74)12
  McAdams-DeMarco et al. (2012) [20] 5789 225 HR (95% CI) Diuretic use 1.72 (1.32–2.25) 1.48 (1.11–1.98)13
  Wilson et al. (2014) [21] 3033 43 Mean number of days until incident
gout (SD, range)
Chlorthalidone (CTD) vs hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) CTD: 183.6
(105.44, 21–362);
HCTZ: 152.7 (107.60, 22–345)
  Burke et al. (2016) [23] 2956
3809
120
110
HR (95% CI) Diuretic use in men
Diuretic use in women
1.58 (0.89–2.81)
1.83 (1.12–2.98)
-
-
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, RR relative risk, OR odds ratio, HR hazard ratio, SD standard deviation
  2. aIncluded in meta-analysis (n = 11)
  3. bAge-adjusted model
  4. cAge and sex-adjusted model
  5. 1–13Maximal adjustment model outlined for each article in each risk factor (adjustment for other risk factor of interest highlighted in italics) as follows:
  6.  Maximal adjustment models within obesity articles:
  7. 1Age, total energy intake, diuretic use, history of hypertension, presence of chronic renal failure, meat intake, seafood intake, purine-rich vegetable intake, dairy food intake, alcohol intake, meat intake and fluid intake
  8. 2Age, education level, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diuretic use, blood glucose level, cholesterol levels and menopausal status (women only)
  9. 3Age, sex, alcohol intake, blood pressure, cholesterol and treatment for hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia
  10. 4Age, menopausal status, race, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, diuretic use, alcohol intake, organ meat intake and estimated glomerular filtration rate
  11.  Maximal adjustment model within hypertension articles:
  12. 5Ethnicity and BMI
  13. 6Age, total energy intake, diuretic use, BMI, presence of chronic renal failure, meat intake, seafood intake, purine-rich vegetable intake, dairy food intake, alcohol intake, meat intake and fluid intake
  14. 7Age, education level, alcohol consumption, diuretic use, blood glucose level, cholesterol levels and menopausal status (women only)
  15. 8Age, obesity (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2), hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking
  16. 9Sex, race, BMI, alcohol intake and categorical estimated glomerular filtration rate
  17. 10Age, sex, dialect, year of interview, educational level, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol use and history of diabetes at follow-up I
  18.  Maximal adjustment models within diuretic use articles:
  19. 11Age, total energy intake, BMI, history of hypertension, presence of chronic renal failure, meat intake, seafood intake, purine-rich vegetable intake, dairy food intake, alcohol intake, meat intake and fluid intake
  20. 12Age, education level, BMI, alcohol consumption, hypertension, blood glucose level, cholesterol levels and menopausal status (women only)
  21. 13Sex, race, baseline BMI, categorical glomerular filtration rate and time-varying blood pressure