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Table 1 Demographic and disease-specific characteristics of patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis and healthy control subjects

From: Cortical bone loss is an early feature of nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis

  Nr-axSpA (n = 101) Control subjects (n = 50) p Value
Demographic characteristics
 Female sex, n (%) 42 (41.6) 20 (40) 0.852
 Age, yr 45.0 (15.0) 44.76 (26.0) 0.917
 Height, m 1.74 (0.1) 1.74 (0.1) 0.997
 Weight, kg 81.1 (21.5) 76.0 (18.5) 0.054
 Body mass index, kg/m2 26.3 (6.5) 23.8 (5.2) 0.118
 Current or previous smoking, n (%) 38 (37.6) 11 (24.4) 0.119
Disease-specific characteristics
 HLA-B27 positivity, n (%) 75 (75.0)
 Duration of disease, yr 6.5 (9.0)
 Disease remission, n (%) 15 (14.9)
 ASDAS-CRP, units 2.1 (1.4)
 BASDAI, units 3.5 (3.6)
 C-reactive protein, mg/L 6.2 (4.0)
 ESR, mm 12.7 (10.5)
 BASFI, units 2.9 (3.8)
 BASMI, units 1.1 (2)
 Peripheral arthritis, n (%) 35 (34.7)
 Dactylitis, n (%) 2 (2.0)
 Enthesitis, n (%) 17 (16.8)
 MASES, units 1.1 (1)
 Psoriasis, n (%) 13 (12.9)
 Uveitis, n (%) 8 (7.9)
 Inflammatory bowel disease, n (%) 7 (6.9)
 Low trauma fracture, n (%) 7 (6.9)
 25(OH)vitamin D3, ng/ml 32.4 (16.3)
Treatment modalities
 Current biologic therapya, n (%) 59 (58.4)
 Duration of biologic therapy, yr 2.0 (4.0)   
 Current DMARD therapyb, n (%) 28 (27.7)
 NSAID, n (%) 68 (67.3)
 NSAID daily, n (%) 22 (21.8)
 NSAID on demand, n (%) 46 (45.5)
 Prednisolone ≥ 5 mg > 3 monthsc, n (%) 32 (31.7)
 Calcium substitution, n (%) 8 (7.9)
 25(OH)vitamin D3 substitution, n (%) 26 (25.7)
 Antiresorptive treatment, n (%) 5 (5.0)
  1. Abbreviations: axSpA Axial spondyloarthritis, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 25(OH)vitamin D3 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, ASDAS-CRP Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score, defined as inactive < 1.3, moderate < 2.1, high < 3.5, very high > 3.5 disease activity, disease remission defined as ASDAS-CRP < 1.3, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, BASMI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, MASES Maastrich Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score, DMARD Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  2. Results are median (IQR) or absolute value and percent
  3. aTumor necrosis factor inhibitors
  4. bMethotrexate, sulfasalazine, azathioprine, leflunomide, mesalazine
  5. cHistory of treatment with ≥ 5 mg prednisolone for ≥ 3 months