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Table 1 Before and after high-intensity interval training values, CIs, and effect sizes for clinical characteristics, health and disease activity, and medication use

From: Ten weeks of high-intensity interval walk training is associated with reduced disease activity and improved innate immune function in older adults with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study

  Pre-HIIT Post-HIIT 95% CI (lower, upper) p Value Effect size (d)
Age, yr 64 ± 7    
Sex, M/F 1/11    
Clinical characteristics
 BMI, kg/m2 27.4 ± 9.3 27.7 ± 9.8 (− 0.6, 0.1) 0.191 0.40
 Body fat, % 36.6 ± 11.6 37.3 ± 11.2 (− 2.1, 0.7) 0.294 0.32
 Blood pressure, mmHg      
  Systolic 136 ± 14 127 ± 14 (− 0.8, 17.3) 0.070 0.58
  Diastolic 73 ± 12 69 ± 8 (− 2.7, 8.1) 0.064 0.60
  Mean arterial pressure 94 ± 11 89 ± 9 (0.2, 10.3) 0.044 0.66
 Resting heart rate, beats/min 69 ± 8 64 ± 8 (1.5, 8.3) 0.009 0.91
 HbA1c, % 5.6 ± 0.5 5.6 ± 0.4 (− 0.1, 0.2) 0.898 0.04
Health and disease activity
 HAQ-DI 0.42 ± 0.35 0.39 ± 0.47 (− 0.1, 0.2) 0.614 0.16
 Pain 28.7 ± 29.8 20.3 ± 21.5 (− 7.3, 24.1) 0.262 0.34
 Anxiety 4.1 ± 2.6 3.5 ± 2.8 (− 0.9, 2.0) 0.393 0.25
 Depression 3.8 ± 2.5 2.4 ± 1.9 (0.1, 2.5) 0.031 0.71
 Swollen joints, n 4.3 ± 3.8 1.9 ± 1.7 (0.6, 4.2) 0.013 0.85
 Tender joints, n 4.3 ± 7 1.9 ± 2.8 (− 0.8, 5.4) 0.062 0.48
 Global health, mm 31.5 ± 15.7 22.6 ± 19.2 (0.6, 17.2) 0.037 0.85
 DAS28ESR 3.1 ± 1.6 2.3 ± 1.2 (0.4, 1.2) 0.001 1.23
 DAS28CRP 3.1 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 1 (0.3, 1.0) 0.001 1.26
 ESR, mm/h 10.5 ± 11.9 7 ± 8.8 (0.04, 6.5) 0.023 0.65
 CRP, mg/L 2.7 ± 3.5 2.2 ± 3.1 (− 0.6, 1.6) 0.322 0.30
Medication use, n (%)
 Infliximab 2 (17%)    
 Adalimumab 2 (17%)    
 Methotrexate 6 (50%)    
 Leflunomide 1 (8%)    
 Sulfasalazine 2 (17%)    
 Tofacitinib 1 (8%)    
 Hydroxychloroquine 4 (33%)    
 NSAID 8 (67%)    
 Prednisone 2 (17%)    
  1. Abbreviations: HIIT High-intensity interval training, HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c, BMI Body mass index, HAQ-DI Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  2. Data are mean ± SD