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Table 3 Before and after high-intensity interval training values, CIs, and effect sizes for systemic inflammation, white blood cell counts, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations

From: Ten weeks of high-intensity interval walk training is associated with reduced disease activity and improved innate immune function in older adults with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study

  Pre-HIIT Post-HIIT 95% CI (lower, upper) p Value Effect size (d)
Systemic inflammation
 IL-1β, pg/ml 0.12 ± 0.13 0.12 ± 0.11 (− 0.04, 0.06) 0.788 0.07
 IL-6, pg/ml 1.06 ± 0.89 1.43 ± 2.02 (− 1.6, 0.8) 0.519 0.19
 CXCL-8, pg/ml 9.69 ± 6.97 10.3 ± 10.0 (− 3.3, 2.2) 0.655 0.13
 IL-10, pg/ml 0.5 ± 0.4 0.5 ± 0.3 (− 0.1, 0.1) 0.912 0.03
 TNF-α, pg/ml 2.21 ± 0.96 2.31 ± 0.96 (− 0.5, 0.3) 0.570 0.17
White blood cells, ×106/L
 Total count 5.6 ± 1.1 5.8 ± 1.2 (− 0.6, 0.2) 0.322 0.32
 Neutrophils 2.8 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.9 (− 0.5, 0.1) 0.217 0.40
 Lymphocytes 2.0 ± 0.6 2.1 ± 0.6 (− 0.4, 0.2) 0.623 0.15
 Monocytes 0.6 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.2 (− 0.1, 0.1) 0.676 0.12
 Eosinophils 0.3 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.1 (− 0.02, 0.2) 0.108 0.53
 Neutrophils: lymphocytes 1.5 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 0.5 (− 0.4, 0.3) 0.810 0.07
Glucose, insulin, and NEFA
 Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 90.9 ± 7.7 93.1 ± 8.3 (− 4.8, 0.5) 0.098 0.55
 Fasting insulin, μIU/ml 13 ± 4.9 12 ± 4.8 (− 0.8, 2.7) 0.264 0.34
 HOMA-IR 1.67 ± 0.64 1.56 ± 0.62 (− 0.1, 0.3) 0.258 0.34
 NEFA, mmol/L 0.55 ± 0.37 0.60 ± 0.36 (− 0.2, 0.1) 0.412 0.24
  1. Abbreviations: HIIT High-intensity interval training, IL Interleukin, CXCL Chemokine C-X-C motif ligand, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α, HOMA-IR Homeostatic model of assessment of insulin resistance, NEFA Nonesterified fatty acids
  2. Data are mean ± SD