Skip to main content

Table 2 Association between low birth weight or preterm birth and hip pathology/osteoarthritis

From: Could low birth weight and preterm birth be associated with significant burden of hip osteoarthritis? A systematic review

Author and year Low birth weight/preterm measurement Confounder adjusted for Results Conclusion
Hip bone shape abnormality
 Case-control study
  Chan et al., 1997 [35] Birth weight from the birth registry Maternal age, region of residence, parity, oligohydramnios, presentation and method of delivery, baby’s sex, birth weight, gestation Low birth weight and DDH, where birth weight 3000–3500 g is referent
Birth weight < 2000 g
OR 0.30 (95% CI 0.12–0.77)
Birth weight 2000–2500 g
OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.31–0.88)
Those who were born with low birth weight (< 2500 g) were less likely to develop DDH
 Cross-sectional studies
  Orak et al., 2015 [37] Hospital-recorded birth weight Unadjusted Preterm born and α-angle of the hip joint suggestive of immature or pathologic hip
Preterm born babies with α-angle < 60 ° = 2.7%
Full-term born babies with α-angle < 60 ° = 28.5%
(p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test)
These results suggest that prematurity is not a predisposing factor for immature hip predictive of DDH
  Davis et al., 1993 [36] Hospital-recorded birth weight Unadjusted Low birth weight and preterm birth with hip deformity
Out-toeing 62% in low birth weight vs 35% in the term babies
Total rotation of hip
preterm group 119.20 (19.6) vs term group 99.20 (9.6) (p < 0.003)
Deformation of the lower limb including hip frequently seen in preterm babies during early infancy
Hip OA
 Cohort studies
  Hussain et al., 2015 [32] Self-reported birth weight and whether born ≥ 2 weeks preterm Age, sex, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and physical activity Low birth weight and hip arthroplasty
HR 2.02 (95% CI 1.10–3.73)
Preterm birth
HR 2.53 (95% CI 1.30–4.92)
Individuals born with LBW or at preterm are at increased risk of hip arthroplasty for OA in adult life
  Clynes et al., 2014 [34] Birth weight from the birth registry Age, sex, BMI, smoking and alcohol Lower birth weight and radiographic hip OA
OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.48–1.27)
Lower birth weight andosteophytes in hip
OR 1.51 (95% CI 1.13–2.01)
Individuals with lower birth weights were more likely to have hip osteophytes but not hip arthritis
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, DDH developmental dysplasia of the hip, HR hazard ratio, LBW low birth weight, OA osteoarthritis, OR odds ratio