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Fig. 2 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 2

From: Functional intraepithelial lymphocyte changes in inflammatory bowel disease and spondyloarthritis have disease specific correlations with intestinal microbiota

Fig. 2

Cytokines produced by intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are altered in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Colonic IELs were mitogen-stimulated overnight and secreted cytokines measured by ELISA. a IL-1β, b IL-17A, c interferon (IFN)-γ, and d TNF-α production in pg/ml was normalized to the number of IELs collected from each subject. Each dot represents a case/control analyzed. A solid square indicates subjects on a TNF inhibitor, a solid dot indicates the subject was taking steroids, and an open dot indicates the subject was taking neither. Subjects with undetectable cytokine levels are absent from the graphs due to the logarithmic scale as are means that fall below the axis range. Statistical differences were identified by the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-hoc analysis for pairwise differences: *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01. HC, healthy controls; CD, Crohn’s disease; UC, ulcerative colitis; axSpA, axial spondyloarthritis

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