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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics, prevalence of depression and quality of studies included in this meta-analysis

From: The prevalence of depression in axial spondyloarthritis and its association with disease activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Depression criteria (threshold) Study Study design Diagnosis Sample size Country Age, mean (SD) Males, % Depression prevalence, % Quality index
HADS (≥ 7) Baysal 2011 [27] Cross-sectional AS 243 Turkey 34.7 (10.4) 86.4 39.5 0.8
Kilic 2014 [18] Cross-sectional axSpA 316 Turkey 36.3 (9.5) 63.0 44.0 0.9
AS 174 38.3 (NS) NS 45.4
nr-axSpA 142 33.9 (NS) NS 42.3
HADS (≥ 8) Healey 2011 [20] Cross-sectional AS 612 UK 50.8 (12.2) 71.6 32.0 1.0
Hakkou (a) 2011 [26] Cross-sectional AS 110 Morocco 38.5 (12.6) 68.2 55.5 0.9
Ates 2015 [32] Cross-sectional AS 60 Turkey NS 66.7 43.3 0.7
Dougados (a) 2017 [25] RCT nr-axSpA 192 Europe, Asia, and South America 31.9 (7.8) 60.1 32.3 0.9
HADS (≥ 11) Martindale 2006 [21] Longitudinal AS 89 UK Median (IQR): 50 (38.5–55.5) 83.1 12.4 0.9
MacFarlane 2017 [30] Longitudinal axSpA 1504 UK Median (IQR): 51.2 (40.1–63.1) 68 13.8 1.0
Hakkou (b) 2011 [26] Cross-sectional AS 110 Morocco 38.5 (12.6) 68.2 37.3 0.9
Rodríguez-Lozano 2012 [29] Cross-sectional AS 190 Spain 48.4 (11.7) 75.3 10.5 0.9
Dougados (b) 2017 [25] Cross-sectional nr-axSpA 192 Europe, Asia, and South America 31.9 (7.8) 60.1 15.6 0.9
SDS (≥ 50) Günaydin 2009 [23] Cross-sectional AS 62 Turkey 39.6 (10.3) 83.9 27.4 0.9
Jiang 2018 [31] Cross-sectional AS 683 China 27.3 (8.7) 80.4 64.0 1.0
SDS (≥ 51) Zhang 2016 [17] Cross-sectional AS 314 China 27.6 (8.3) 74.5 35.4 0.8
SDS (≥ 53) Xu 2016 [22] Cross-sectional AS 103 China 32.9 (10.7) 75.7 36.9 0.8
Zou 2016 [28] Cross-sectional axSpA 60 China 31.8 (10.1) 73.3 43.3 0.8
AS 40 31.5 (10.1) 70.0 42.5
PHQ-9 (≥ 10) Hyphantis 2013 [19] Longitudinal AS 55 Greece 42.9 (10.9) 85.5 14.5 0.9
SCID Chan 2017 [24] Cross-sectional axSpA 160 Hong Kong 46.2 (12.7) 70.6 10.6 0.9
AS 122 NS NS 11.5
  1. HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—depression subscale, SDS Zung self-rating depression scale, PHQ9 Patient Health Questionnaire, SCID Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, AS ankylosing spondylitis, axSpA axial spondyloarthritis, nr-axSpA non-radiographic axSpA, NS not specified, IQR interquartile range