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Table 3 Univariate logistic regression analyses for development of new syndesmophytes over 5 years

From: A five-year prospective study of spinal radiographic progression and its predictors in men and women with ankylosing spondylitis

  Total group, n = 166 Men, n = 89 Women, n = 77
OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Demographic variables
 Male sex 3.29 1.44 to 7.54 0.005 NA    NA   
 Age, years 1.05 1.02 to 1.09 0.003 1.06 1.02 to 1.10 0.007 1.06 0.99 to 1.13 0.082
 BMI: overweight (reference, normal) 2.46 1.04 to 5.85 0.042 3.16 1.08 to 9.22 0.036 0.95 0.16 to 5.63 0.96
  obese (reference, normal) 4.49 1.62 to 12.44 0.004 4.25 1.16 to 15.60 0.029 4.29 0.78 to 23.43 0.093
 Ever-smoker 1.22 0.58 to 2.56 0.60 1.73 0.70 to 4.31 0.24 0.38 0.07 to 1.99 0.25
 Current smoker 2.16 0.74 to 6.32 0.16 4.47 0.99 to 20.29 0.052 0.94 0.10 to 8.51 0.95
 Blue-collar worka 1.18 0.45 to 3.10 0.74 1.47 0.44 to 4.87 0.53 0.78 0.14 to 4.43 0.78
 Time between x-rays 0.82 0.71 to 0.94 0.004 0.88 0.75 to 1.02 0.083 0.75 0.36 to 1.56 0.44
Disease-related variables
 Duration of symptoms, years 1.02 0.99 to 1.05 0.13 1.02 0.99 to 1.06 0.26 1.04 0.98 to 1.09 0.18
 HLA-B27 positive 1.00 0.34 to 2.90 1.00 0.55 0.12 to 2.65 0.46 0.91 0.17 to 4.86 0.91
 History of coxitis 1.09 0.28 to 4.19 0.90 0.36 0.04 to 3.14 0.35 4.57 0.71 to 29.61 0.11
 History of uveitis 2.26 1.04 to 4.91 0.039 1.88 0.73 to 4.81 0.19 2.69 0.62 to 11.66 0.19
 BASMI, score 1.57 1.22 to 2.01 < 0.001 1.29 1.00 to 1.68 0.053 4.39 1.77 to 10.84 0.001
 Lateral spinal flexion, cm 0.89 0.83 to 0.96 0.002 0.92 0.85 to 1.00 0.036 0.71 0.55 to 0.91 0.006
 BASFI, score 1.14 0.95 to 1.36 0.16 1.11 0.88 to 1.40 0.40 1.35 0.97 to 1.87 0.072
 BASDAI, score 1.01 0.85 to 1.21 0.91 1.01 0.82 to 1.26 0.90 1.14 0.81 to 1.61 0.45
 ASDAS_CRP 1.23 0.81 to 1.86 0.34 1.19 0.73 to 1.95 0.48 1.44 0.63 to 3.32 0.39
 CRP, mg/L 1.02 0.99 to 1.06 0.24 1.02 0.98 to 1.06 0.46 1.01 0.89 to 1.15 0.86
 Time-averaged CRP, mg/L 1.06 1.00 to 1.12 0.060 1.05 0.98 to 1.13 0.15 1.03 0.91 to 1.16 0.65
 ESR, mm/h 0.99 0.95 to 1.02 0.43 1.00 0.96 to 1.04 0.83 0.99 0.92 to 1.06 0.69
 Time-averaged ESR, mm/h 0.99 0.94 to 1.03 0.60 1.00 0.94 to 1.06 0.94 1.00 0.93 to 1.09 0.93
 Syndesmophytes at baseline 5.98 2.52 to 14.17 < 0.001 5.01 1.68 to 14.92 0.004 5.16 1.17 to 22.74 0.030
 Aortic insufficiencyb 1.53 0.58 to 4.04 0.40 1.11 0.31 to 4.02 0.87 2.89 0.61 to 13.69 0.18
Medication
 NSAID index, 0–100 1.01 1.00 to 1.02 0.11 1.01 1.00 to 1.02 0.11 1.00 0.97 to 1.02 0.72
 Exposure to TNFi 1.07 0.48 to 2.38 0.88 0.59 0.22 to 1.62 0.31 2.83 0.67 to 11.86 0.16
 Exposure to bisphosphonates 2.57 1.09 to 6.08 0.031 2.12 0.59 to 7.67 0.25 8.46 1.87 to 38.38 0.006
  1. ORs reflect a change in one unit for continuous variables. All variables are baseline values except for time-averaged variables and medications. Significant p values are shown in bold typeface
  2. ASDAS_CRP Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score_C-reactive protein, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, BASMI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HLA-B27 Human leukocyte antigen B27, mSASSS modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, TNFi tumor necrosis factor inhibitor
  3. an = 120 for total group, n = 63 for men, n = 57 for women
  4. bn = 153 for total groupn = 83 for men and n = 70 for women