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Table 3 Multivariable model with certain diagnosis of axSpA (level of confidence ≥ 7/10) as an outcome and SpA features as independent variables in male CBP population

From: Are gender-specific approaches needed in diagnosing early axial spondyloarthritis? Data from the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort

Independent variable OR (95% CI)
(N = 262a)
p value
HLA-B27+ 3.8 (1.7–8.8) < 0.001
IBP 2.1 (0.8–5.6) 0.1
Uveitis 1.7 (0.5–6.0) 0.3
Psoriasis 2.7 (0.6–11.2) 0.2
Heel enthesitis 2.3 (0.8–6.5) 0.09
Dactylitis 0.3 (0.0–2.4) 0.3
IBD 1.8 (0.4–7.6) 0.4
Peripheral arthritis 1.9 (0.6–6.0) 0.3
Response to NSAIDs 1.5 (0.6–3.3) 0.4
Family history of SpA 1.5 (0.7–3.6) 0.3
Elevated CRP/ESR 2.5 (1.0–6.1) 0.05
MRI-SIJ+ 24.3 (9.7–60.6) < 0.001
X-SIJ+ 2.7 (0.7–9.4) 0.1
  1. Bold data indicate significant results
  2. axSpA axial spondyloarthritis, SpA spondyloarthritis, CBP chronic back pain, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, HLA human leukocyte antigen, IBP inflammatory back pain, IBD inflammatory bowel disease, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, MRI-SIJ magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliac joints, X-SIJ plain radiograph of of sacroiliac joints
  3. aNumber of patients with complete data on all variables