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Table 1 Population characteristics and characteristics of patients flaring and not flaring between month 0 (M0) and month 6 (M6) (significance of the p value set at 5%)

From: Monosodium urate burden assessed with dual-energy computed tomography predicts the risk of flares in gout: a 12-month observational study

Characteristics Population (n = 78) Patients without flare between M0 and M6 (n = 33) Patients with at least 1 flare between M0 and M6 (n = 19) p value
Demographics
 Age (years) 64.8 ± 13.9 67.4 ± 12.3 67.7 ± 13.8 0.95
 Male 68 (87.2%) 26 (78.8%) 17 (89.5%) 0.46
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.9 ± 4.3 29.1 ± 4.5 28.7 ± 4 0.62
 Current smoking 10 (12.8%) 2 (6.1%) 4 (21.1%) 0.18
 Excessive alcohol consumption (n) 38 (48.7%) 16 (48.5%) 8 (42.1%) 0.88
 Creatinine clearance (mL/min) 76.8 ± 28.0 70.3 ± 28.2 77.5 ± 32.8 0.51
Comorbidities
 High blood pressure 43 (55.1%) 22 (66.7%) 5 (26.3%) 0.012
 Coronary heart disease 12 (15.4%) 2 (6.1%) 4 (21.1%) 0.18
 Peripheral arterial disease 3 (3.8%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1
 Chronic heart disease 18 (23.1%) 8 (24.2%) 2 (10.5%) 0.29
 Stroke 8 (10.3%) 5 (15.2%) 0 (0%) 0.15
 Dyslipidemia 37 (47.4%) 18 (54.5%) 8 (42.1%) 0.56
 Diabetes mellitus 20 (25.6%) 12 (36.4%) 3 (15.8%) 0.21
 Obstructive sleep apnea 11 (14.1%) 6 (18.2%) 2 (10.5%) 0.69
 Psoriasis 5 (6.4%) 3 (9.1%) 1 (5.3%) 1
 Ongoing diuretics 19 (24.4%) 8 (24.2%) 4 (21.1%) 1
Disease characteristics
 Gout duration (years) 11.8 ± 11.9 9.6 ± 11.2 15.8 ± 13.4 0.061
 Renal stones 13 (16.7%) 6 (18.2%) 3 (15.8%) 1
 Family history of gout 18 (23.1%) 6 (18.2%) 6 (31.6%) 0.32
 Declared number of flares over the past year 4.1 ± 5.9 3.2 ± 4.4 4.6 ± 5.8 0.15
 Baseline ongoing flare prophylaxis 25 (32.1%) 12 (36.4%) 7 (36.8%) 1
 Baseline serum urate (mg/dL) 7.43 ± 2.33 6.93 ± 2.14 7.85 ± 2.12 0.096
 Ongoing urate lowering therapy 36 (46.2%) 16 (48.5%) 9 (47.4%) 1
  Allopurinol 18 (50%) 8 (50%) 5 (55.6%) 0.38
  Febuxostat 16 (44.4%) 8 (50%) 3 (33.3%)
  Probenecid 1 (2.8%) 0 (0%) 1 (11.1%)
  Benzbromarone 1 (2.8%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
 Subcutaneous tophi 28 (35.9%) 7 (21.2%) 9 (47.4%) 0.098
 US tophi 49 (62.8%) 19 (57.6%) 13 (68.4%) 0.63
 Number of joints with the US double contour sign (/6) 2.4 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1 2.8 ± 1.4 0.3
 At least one US double contour sign 75 (96.2%) 32 (97%) 19 (100%) 1
 DECT MSU volume knees (cm3) 6.3 ± 28.1 0.6 ± 1.3 1.7 ± 3.4 0.11
 DECT MSU volume feet (cm3) 5.4 ± 16.7 0.9 ± 1.3 2.4 ± 2.1 0.0064
  1. US ultrasonography, DECT dual-energy computed tomography, MSU monosodium urate
  2. Significance of the p value was set at 5% are in bold