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Table 2 Regression results of definite neuropathic-like knee pain versus possible neuropathic-like knee pain, non-neuropathic-like knee pain and no knee pain in the whole Nottingham Knee Pain and Health in the Community study population

From: Neuropathic-like knee pain and associated risk factors: a cross-sectional study in a UK community sample

   OR (95% CI)
No KP Non-NKP Possible NKP Definite NKP
Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted
(n = 6822) (n = 1685)   (n = 462)   (n = 366)  
Age 1 (referent) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99;1.00) 0.99 (0.98;1.00)
Body mass index 1 1.06 (1.06; 1.08) 1.11 (1.09;1.13) 1.15 (1.13;1.17)
Gender 1 1.04 (0.93; 1.16) 1.03 (0.85; 1.24) 1.57 (1.25; 1.96)
Pain severity 1 1.70 (1.64; 1.77) 2.28 (2.15; 2.53) 3.44 (3.16; 3.74)
Peripheral factors
 High-risk occupation 1 1.36 (1.22; 1.51) 0.88 (0.74; 1.05) 2.22 (1.83; 2.69) 1.38 (1.06; 1.80) 1.75 (1.41; 2.16) 1.04 (0.77; 1.42)
 Significant injury 1 2.40 (2.12; 2.73) 0.93 (0.78; 1.12) 3.41 (2.78; 4.18) 1.29 (0.98; 1.69) 3.53 (2.81; 4.44) 1.44 (1.04; 1.99)
 Nodal OA 1 1.60 (1.36; 1.89) 1.01 (0.78; 1.30) 2.09 (1.62; 2.70) 1.34 (0.93; 1.93) 3.19 (2.47; 4.12) 1.76 (1.19; 2.63)
 2D:4D digit ratio 1 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99; 0.99) 1.00 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00)
Central factors
 Anxiety 1 1.73 (1.49; 2.00) 0.8 (0.63; 1.00) 3.79 (3.08; 4.68) 1.42 (1.04; 1.94) 8.78 (7.06; 10.93) 2.48 (1.76; 3.48)
 Depression 1 2.27 (1.84; 2.80) 0.84 (0.60; 1.19) 6.04 (4.66; 7.84) 1.71 (1.13; 2.59) 14.06 (11.00; 17.99) 2.62 (1.70; 4.04)
Pain Catastrophising Scale
  Lowest tertile 1     
  Middle tertile   2.00 (1.75; 2.23) 1.19 (0.97; 1.47) 4.93 (3.35; 7.24) 2.45 (1.57; 3.82) 4.04 (2.14; 7.62) 1.60 (0.80; 3.23)
  Highest tertile   2.53 (2.20; 2.91) 0.87 (0.69; 1.09) 14.98 (10.44; 21.49) 3.33 (2.16; 5.14) 40.84 (23.36; 71.42) 5.00 (2.68; 9.36)
 Fatigue
  Lowest tertile 1     
  Middle tertile   1.94 (1.70; 2.22) 1.01 (0.83; 1.24) 2.75 (2.04; 3.69) 1.14 (0.79; 1.65) 6.26 (3.72; 10.55) 2.38 (1.31; 4.33)
  Highest tertile   2.80 (2.44; 3.23) 0.97 (0.77; 1.22) 7.77 (5.86; 10.30) 1.86 (1.29; 2.68) 31.20 (19.02; 51.21) 5.11 (2.86; 9.15)
  Fibromyalgia 1 2.11 (1.51; 2.97) 0.79 (0.47; 1.32) 3.97 (2.55; 6.17) 1.27 (0.66; 2.42) 12.28 (8.70; 17.32) 3.19 (1.70; 5.98)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 1 1.28 (1.14; 1.44) 1.00 (0.82; 1.21) 1.71 (1.41; 2.07) 1.18 (0.88; 1.57) 1.73 (1.40; 2.15) 1.09 (0.78; 1.53)
 Hyperlipidaemia 1 1.18 (1.05; 1.33) 1.05 (0.86; 1.28) 1.45 (1.19; 1.77) 1.17 (0.87; 1.56) 1.83 (1.47; 2.27) 1.44 (1.03; 2.01)
 Stroke 1 1.19 (0.87; 1.64) 1.12 (0.66; 1.89) 1.19 (0.69; 2.07) 1.18 (0.55; 2.50) 1.63 (0.95; 2.80) 1.13 (0.48; 2.68)
 Diabetes 1 1.30 (1.08; 1.55) 0.91 (0.67; 1.22) 2.10 (1.61; 2.75) 1.20 (0.80; 1.80) 2.84 (2.17; 3.72) 1.38 (0.88; 2.15)
 Multiple regional pain 1 2.50 (2.22;2.83) 0.97 (0.81; 1.18) 4.43 (3.65; 5.38) 1.60 (1.23; 2.09) 6.32 (5.10; 7.84) 1.90 (1.40; 2.60)
Pain experience
 ICOAP overall 1 1.11 (1.10; 1.12) 1.08 (1.07; 1.10) 1.15 (1.14; 1.16) 1.11 (1.10; 1.13) 1.19 (1.18; 1.20) 1.14 (1.13; 1.16)
 ICOAP intermittent 1 1.09 (1.08; 1.10) 1.06 (1.05; 1.07) 1.13 (1.12; 1.14) 1.08 (1.07; 1.09) 1.17 (1.15; 1.18) 1.10 (1.09; 1.12)
 ICOAP constant 1 1.10 (1.09; 1.10) 1.07 (1.06; 1.08) 1.13 (1.13; 1.14) 1.10 (1.09; 1.11) 1.18 (1.16; 1.19) 1.12 (1.11; 1.14)
  1. Abbreviations: ICOAP Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain measure, KP Knee pain, NKP Neuropathic-like knee pain, OA Osteoarthritis
  2. No KP is no knee pain; non-NKP is non-neuropathic-like knee pain; likely NKP is likely neuropathic pain; and definite NKP is definite neuropathic-like knee pain
  3. The no KP group is the referent group, and hence a ‘1’ represents this in the table
  4. Note: Significant associations are highlighted in bold. For comparison purposes, we only present crude and age-, gender-, body mass index- and pain severity-adjusted OR for each factor