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Table 4 Univariable and multivariable analysis of significant progression of mSASSS over 2 years

From: Low bone mineral density predicts the formation of new syndesmophytes in patients with axial spondyloarthritis

Variable Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisa
OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Male sex 0.5 0.2–1.5 0.223    
Age (years) 1.1 1.0–1.1 0.019    
Symptom duration (years) 1.1 1.0–1.1 0.064    
BMI (kg/m2)    0.817    
 < 18.5 1.0 0.2–5.3 0.964    
 18.5–22.9 1.0 (reference)      
 23.0–24.9 1.4 0.5–4.0 0.487    
 ≥ 25.0 1.5 0.6–4.2 0.408    
Current smoking 4.1 1.7–9.6 0.001 3.0 1.1–7.7 0.025
HLA B27-positive 1.3 0.3–6.7 0.743    
Peripheral arthritis 0.5 0.2–1.6 0.269    
Radiographic sacroiliitis 4.1 1.2–14.7 0.029    
Presence of syndesmophytes 5.7 2.4–13.8 < 0.001 4.6 1.8–11.9 0.002
BASFI score, per 1 point 1.0 0.8–1.2 0.678    
BASDAI score ≥ 4 0.9 0.7–1.1 0.328    
ASDAS-CRP    0.313    
 Low (< 1.3) 1.0 (Reference)      
 Moderate (< 2.1) 1.2 0.4–3.6 0.769    
 High (≤ 3.5) 0.3 0.2–1.3 0.135    
 Very high (> 3.5) 0.9 0.2–3.2 0.839    
Increased ESR (≥ 20 mm/h) 1.1 0.5–2.4 0.842    
Increased CRP (≥ 5 mg/L) 1.4 0.6–3.3 0.431    
Patients on NSAIDs 0.7 0.2–3.1 0.716    
Patients on sulfasalazine 0.7 0.3–1.9 0.530    
Patients on TNF inhibitors 1.6 0.7–3.7 0.298    
Patients on calcium 3.0 0.8–11.3 0.097    
Patients on vitamin D 2.1 0.4–10.1 0.336    
Low BMD, any site (Z score ≤ − 2.0) 3.0 1.1–8.3 0.033 3.6 1.2–11.2 0.028
  1. mSASSS Modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, ASDAS Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, TNF tumour necrosis factor, BMD bone mineral density
  2. aAdjusted for age, smoking, radiographic sacroiliitis, presence of syndesmophytes and presence of low BMD at any site at baseline