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Table 5 Univariable and multivariable analysis of the formation of new syndesmophytes over 2 years

From: Low bone mineral density predicts the formation of new syndesmophytes in patients with axial spondyloarthritis

Variable Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisa
OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Male sex 1.0 0.3–2.9 0.922    
Age (years) 1.0 1.0–1.1 0.078    
Symptom duration (years) 1.1 1.0–1.1 0.040    
BMI (kg/m2)    0.838    
 < 18.5 1.7 0.3–9.8 0.567    
 18.5–22.9 1.0 (reference)      
 23.0–24.9 1.5 0.4–4.9 0.534    
 ≥ 25.0 1.6 0.5–5.2 0.403    
Current smoking 2.9 1.1–7.5 0.029    
HLA B27-positive 0.8 0.2–4.0 0.765    
Peripheral arthritis 1.0 0.3–3.0 0.996    
Radiographic sacroiliitis 3.9 0.8–17.6 0.082    
Presence of syndesmophytes 5.2 2.0–13.9 0.001 5.5 2.0–15.2 0.001
BASFI score, per 1 point 1.0 0.8–1.3 0.720    
BASDAI score ≥ 4 1.0 0.4–2.6 0.965    
ASDAS-CRP    0.632    
 Low (< 1.3) 1.0 (reference)      
 Moderate (< 2.1) 1.1 0.3–3.8 0.900    
 High (≤ 3.5) 0.5 0.2–1.7 0.278    
 Very high (> 3.5) 0.3 0.2–3.3 0.688    
Increased ESR (≥ 20 mm/h) 1.3 0.5–3.2 0.630    
Increased CRP (≥ 5 mg/L) 1.6 0.6–4.2 0.320    
Patients on NSAIDs 1.3 0.3–6.2 0.761    
Patients on sulfasalazine 1.1 0.4–2.8 0.907    
Patients on TNF inhibitors 1.8 0.7–4.7 0.232    
Patients on calcium 2.9 0.9–9.0 0.062    
Patients on vitamin D 2.7 0.9–8.1 0.086    
Low BMD, any site (Z score ≤ −2.0) 3.3 1.1–9.8 0.030 3.6 1.1–11.8 0.031
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, ASDAS Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, TNF tumour necrosis factor, BMD bone mineral density
  2. aAdjusted for symptom duration, presence of syndesmophytes, smoking and presence of low BMD at any site at baseline