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Table 2 Meta-analysis results for included studies of the relationship between SLE and risks of various cancers

From: The risks of cancer development in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables NO.of studies Effects model SIR (95%CI) I-squared (%) P values Relationship Publication bias
Overall characteristics  
 Overall cancers 10 Random 1.28 (1.16–1.42) 71.9% <0.001 Increased risks None
 Female 4 Random 1.49 (1.15–1.93) 72.7% 0.012 Increased risks None
 Male 5 Random 1.59 (1.18–2.14) 78.8% 0.001 Increased risks None
SLE associated with Lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers   
 Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 11 Random 4.93 (3.81–6.36) 55.2% 0.014 Increased risks None
 Hodgkin’s lymphoma 8 Fixed 2.60 (2.14–3.17) 0.0% 0.660 Increased risks Existence
 Leukemia 10 Fixed 2.01 (1.64–2.47) 24.3% 0.220 Increased risks None
 Multiple myeloma 4 Fixed 1.48 (1.02–2.14) 0.0% 0.744 Increased risks None
SLE associated with Reproductive cancers
 Breast cancer 19 Random 0.89 (0.77–1.04) 70.1% < 0.001 No association None
 Uterus cancer 6 Random 0.70 (0.46–1.07) 58.3% 0.035 No association None
 Cervix cancer 11 Fixed 1.56 (1.29–1.88) 4.1% 0.404 Increased risks None
 Ovarian cancer 11 Fixed 0.92 (0.74–1.33) 14.2% 0.309 No association None
 Vagina/vulva cancer 8 Fixed 3.48 (2.69–4.50) 0.0% 0.813 Increased risks None
SLE associated with Urinary cancers
 Prostate cancer 11 Fixed 0.78 (0.70–0.88) 14.4% 0.307 Decreased risks None
 Renal cancer 6 Random 2.10 (1.11–3.96) 65.2% 0.013 Increased risks None
 Bladder cancer 10 Random 1.86 (1.16–2.99) 75.1% < 0.001 Increased risks None
SLE associated with Digestive cancers
 Esophagus cancer 5 Fixed 1.64 (1.43–1.87) 0.0% 0.725 Increased risks None
 Gastric cancer 8 Fixed 1.31 (1.04–1.63) 0.0% 0.789 Increased risks None
 Hepatobiliary cancer 11 Random 2.37 (1.67–3.38) 50.4% 0.028 Increased risks None
 Pancreatic cancer 9 Fixed 1.24 (0.97–1.60) 6.2% 0.384 No association None
 Colorectal cancer 13 Fixed 0.97 (0.85–1.09) 0.0% 0.907 No association None
SLE associated with Respiratory cancers
 Lung cancer 15 Random 1.62 (1.40–1.87) 46.0% 0.026 Increased risks None
 Oropharynx cancer 5 Fixed 1.52 (1.00–2.30) 0.0% 0.721 Increased risks None
 Larynx cancer 4 Fixed 2.90 (1.82–4.62) 15.3% 0.315 Increased risks None
SLE associated with Other cancers
 Cutaneous melanoma 6 Fixed 0.72 (0.56–0.93) 0.0% 0.424 Decreased risks None
 Non-melanoma skin cancer 4 Fixed 1.41 (1.07–1.87) 28.7% 0.240 Increased risks None
 Brain cancer 6 Fixed 1.08 (0.64–1.81) 0.0% 0.765 No association None
 Thyroid cancer 7 Fixed 1.80 (1.46–2.23) 0.0% 0.795 Increased risks None
  1. SIR standardized incidence rate, CI confidence interval