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Table 2 Variables associated with the development of pleuropulmonary manifestations

From: Primary respiratory disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: data from the Spanish rheumatology society lupus registry (RELESSER) cohort

  Without pleuropulmonary involvement (N = 2219) With pleuropulmonary involvement (N = 996) Univariate analyses Multivariate analyses
P value Odds ratio (95% CI) P value
Gender, female (%) 91.5% (2030) 88.3% (880) 0.053 0.86 (0.57–1.29) 0.450
Age at SLE onset, mean ± SD 37 ± 11.6 39.1 ± 13 <0.001 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 0.001
Tobacco (before or at the time of RELESSER-TRANS inclusion) 41.4% (919) 45.2% (450) 0.015 1.13 (0.88–1.45) 0.350
Clinical manifestations
 Arthritis 77.3% (1717) 80% (797) 0.257 1.35 (0.99–1.85) 0.069
 Cutaneous 64.9% (1440) 62.6% (623) 0.568   
 Raynaud’s phenomenon 32.6% (723) 41.9% (417) <0.001 1.41 (1.09–1.84) 0.015
 Vasculitis 7.2% (160) 17.6% (175) <0.001 1.81 (1.25–2.62) 0.002
 Nephritis 26.8% (595) 39% (389) 0.043 1.30 (0.98–1.73) 0.068
 Severe lupus nephritis (only including classes III, IV, V, and mixed III/IV + V) 20.2% (450) 26.7% (266) <0.001 1.48 (1.12–1.95) 0.002
 Non-ischemic cardiac disease, excluding pericarditis 2.3% (52) 9.3% (93) <0.001 2.91 (1.90–4.15) 0.001
 Gastrointestinal involvement, except hepatitis 2.2% (49) 5.3% (53) 0.001 2.05 (1.14–3.66) 0.016
 Hepatitis 2.3% (51) 3.9% (39) 0.078 0.75 (0.35–1.60) 0.453
 Hematologic abnormalities 76.7% (1701) 84.3% (840) 0.001 1.31 (1.00–1.71) 0.048
 Neuropsychiatric manifestations 4.4% (98) (112) <0.001 1.49 (1.11–2.02) 0.009
 Secondary antiphospholipid syndrome 12% (266) 27.9% (278) <0.001 2.20 (1.63–2.97) 0.000
 SLEDAI score, mean ± SD 2.72 ± 2.43 3.65 ± 2.25 <0.001 1.03 (1.00–1.07) 0.021
 SDI score, mean ± SD 0.90 ± 1.40 2.39 ± 3.34 <0.001   
Immunological laboratory*
 Anti-dsDNA antibody positivity 71.3% (1978/2772) 76.7% (277/361) 0.072   
 Hypocomplementemia 76.2% (2123/2785) 77.9% (278/357) 0.085   
 Anti-Sm antibody positivity 20.2% (545/2701) 23.6% (82/347) 0.134   
 Anti-Ro antibody positivity 40.8% (1126/2760) 36.1% (126/349) 0.092   
 Anti-La antibody positivity 19.7% (543/2756) 16.5% (58/352) 0.149   
 Anti-RNP antibody positivity 23.9% (657/2744) 30.5% (107/351) 0.007 1.32 (1.00–1.75) 0.054
 Anticardiolipin antibody positivity (IgM or IgG) 19.9% (520/2616) 21.7% (73/336) 0.426   
 Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1 (IgM or IgG) 13.3% (226/1697) 14.9% (33/221) 0.509   
 Lupus anticoagulant 22.2% (455/2049) 30.1% (82/272) 0.004   
  1. Results are presented as percentage (and number of cases) or mean ± standard deviation
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, RELESSER-TRANS Registry of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology [SER], cross-sectional phase, SD standard deviation, SDI Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, SLEDAI Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index
  3. * Because this is a retrospective (historical) study, not all analyzed variables were available in all included cases. Thus, the percentage for each variable was calculated for only those patients in which the data were documented
  4. Statistical significance was assumed as a p value of less than 0.05 (bold data)