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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of SLE patients and healthy controls

From: Immunosuppressive therapy influences the accelerated age-dependent T-helper cell differentiation in systemic lupus erythematosus remission patients

  Healthy controls
n = 94
SLE patients
n = 78
SLE patients treated with glucocorticoids
n = 46
SLE patients not treated with glucocorticoids
n = 32
SLE patients treated with MMF or AZA
n = 48
SLE patients not treated with MMF or AZA
n = 30
Female sex, n (%) 64 (68%) 65 (83%) 40 (87%) 25 (78%) 38 (79%) 27 (90%)
Age (years) 45 ± 18 45 ± 15 47 ± 16 43 ± 12 43 ± 14 50 ± 16
Time since initial diagnosis (years) 14 ± 9 14 ± 9 12 ± 9 14 ± 8 14 ± 10
Renal involvement, n (%) 56 (72%) 38 (87%)* 18 (56%)* 38 (79%) 18 (60%)
Medication
 No medication, n (%)   4 (5%) 4 (13%) 4 (13%)
 Antimalarials, n (%)   62 (79%) 36 (78%) 26 (81%) 40 (83%) 22 (73%)
 Mycophenolate mofetil, n (%)   31 (40%) 19 (41%) 12 (38%) 31 (65%)
 Azathioprine, n (%)   17 (22%) 9 (20%) 8 (25%) 17 (35%)
 Glucocorticoids, n (%)   46 (59%) 46 (100%) 28 (58%) 18 (60%)
 Glucocorticoid dose (mg/day)   3.93 ± 1.53 3.93 ± 1.53 3.89 ± 1.70 3.99 ± 1.27
Serum leukocytes (n/l) 6.65 ± 2.36 7.09 ± 2.36 6.02 ± 2.25 6.50 ± 2.55 6.90 ± 2.04
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.97 ± 0.61 0.94 ± 0.60 1.00 ± 0.64 1.05 ± 0.74 0.84 ± 0.28
CKD-EPI GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 88.6 ± 31.0 88.3 ± 31.2 89.0 ± 31.3 88.0 ± 35.0 89.6 ± 23.9
MDRD GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 88.0 ± 32.8 87.2 ± 31.9 89.2 ± 34.6 87.9 ± 36.7 88.3 ± 26.0
Urine protein/urine creatinine ratio (g/mol creatinine) 44.8 ± 81.6 55.2 ± 98.8 29.7 ± 44.3 62.7 ± 98.8 16.1 ± 21.5
  1. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant
  2. The data are presented as their mean and standard deviation unless otherwise indicated
  3. AZA azathioprine, CKD-EPI GFR Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration-estimated glomerular filtration rate, MDRD GFR Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study-estimated glomerular filtration rate, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
  4. *, † Significantly differing values between groups (nonparametric H test of Kruskal and Wallis, followed by a Dunn test)