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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Effect of high-intensity interval training on muscle remodeling in rheumatoid arthritis compared to prediabetes

Variable Rheumatoid arthritis (n = 12) Prediabetes (n = 9)
Age, years 63.9 (7.2) 71.4 (4.9)*
Gender
 Female 11 (91.6%) 5 (55.6%)
Race
 Caucasian 11 (91.6%) 8 (88.9%)
 African-American 1 (8.4%) 1 (11.1%)
Absolute peak VO2, mL/min
 Pre-HIIT 1.75 (0.38) 1.71 (0.46)
 Post-HIIT 1.90 (0.38)** 1.94 (0.57)**
Relative peak VO2, mL/kg per min
 Pre-HIIT 24.9 (6.6) 19.9 (2.7)
 Post-HIIT 27.1 (6.9)** 23.1 (3.6)**
BMI, kg/m2
 Pre-HIIT 27.4 (9.3) 29.4 (3.0)
 Post-HIIT 27.6 (9.8) 29.0 (3.0)
Body fat, %
 Pre-HIIT 36.6 (11.6) 39.6 (8.6)
 Post-HIIT 37.2 (11.2) 39.1 (8.1)
Lean mass, kg
 Pre-HIIT 44.9 (8.9) 50.1 (12.2)
 Post-HIIT 44.7 (7.8) 50.1 (12.0)
Hemoglobin A1c
 Pre-HIIT 5.46 (0.59) 5.99 (0.19)*
 Post-HIIT 5.56 (0.41) 5.87 (0.21)*
Disease duration, years 13.3 (7.2) NA
DAS-28, mean (SD)
 Pre-HIIT 3.1 (2.3) NA
 Post-HIIT 2.3 (1.5)** NA
Rheumatoid factor–positive 10/12 (83.3%) NA
Anti-cyclic citrullinated antibody–positive 5/8 (62.5%) NA
Erosions on radiographs present 9/12 (75.0%) NA
Medication use
 Infliximab 2 (16.7%) NA
 Adalimumab 2 (16.7%) NA
 Tofacitinib 1 (8.3%) NA
 Methotrexate 6 (50%) NA
 Leflunomide 1 (8.3%) NA
 Sulfasalazine 2 (16.7%) NA
 Hydroxychloroquine 4 (33.3%) NA
 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents 8 (66.7%) NA
 Prednisone (<5 mg/day) 3 (25%) NA
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD) for continuous variables and number (percentage) of participants for dichotomous variables.
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, HIIT high-intensity interval training, NA not applicable, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, SD standard deviation, VO2 maximal oxygen consumption
  3. *P <0.05 for comparisons between rheumatoid arthritis and prediabetes groups
  4. ** P <0.05 for comparisons between pre-and post-HIIT rheumatoid arthritis and prediabetes groups