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Table 2 Skeletal muscle remodeling markers

From: Effect of high-intensity interval training on muscle remodeling in rheumatoid arthritis compared to prediabetes

  Rheumatoid arthritis (n = 12) Pre-diabetes mellitus (n = 9)
Pre-HIIT Post-HIIT Pre-HIIT Post-HIIT
Skeletal muscle concentrations, pg/mL per μg
 IL-1β 0.007 (0.005) 0.009 (0.006) 0.011 (0.010) 0.009 (0.006)
 IL-6 0.010 (0.006) 0.013 (0.007) 0.012 (0.006) 0.017 (0.009)
 IL-8 0.112 (0.212) 0.121 (0.168) 0.052 (0.024) 0.112 (0.081)
 TNF-α 0.008 (0.007) 0.012 (0.006) 0.006 (0.004) 0.009 (0.007)
 IL-10 0.009 (0.012) 0.006 (0.004) 0.005 (0.003) 0.005 (0.004)
 Myostatin 16.621 (7.463) 20.589 (8.685) 31.884 (14.34)* 34.314 (20.08)*
Plasma concentrations, ng/mL
 Galectin-3 12.21 (6.72) 11.99 (4.22) 8.73 (2.31) 8.71 (2.70)
  1. Sample skeletal muscle concentrations were normalized to initial masses. Continuous variable data are presented as mean (standard deviation). Abbreviations: HIIT high-intensity interval training, IL interleukin, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha
  2. *P <0.05 for comparisons between rheumatoid arthritis and pre-diabetes mellitus groups