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Table 2 Incidence rates and hazard ratios for various lung diseases in individuals with incident systemic lupus erythematosus and general population comparators (2003–2013)

From: New-onset non-infectious pulmonary manifestations among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Sweden

  Incident SLE (n = 3209) General population (n = 17,658)  
Cases, n (%) Person-years Incidence rate per
1000 person-years (95% CI)
Cases,
n (%)
Person-years Incidence rate per
1000 person-years (95% CI)
Adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)a
Any pulmonary disease 227 (7.1) 15,208 14.9 (13.1–17.0) 246 (1.4) 90,374 2.7 (2.4–3.1) 5.8 (4.8–7.0)
By specific pulmonary disease
 Interstitial lung disease 48 (1.5) 15,535 3.1 (2.3–4.1) 15 (0.1) 90,738 0.2 (0.1–0.3) 19.0 (10.7–34.0)
 ARDS and hemorrhage 16 (0.5) 15,672 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 18 (0.1) 90,704 0.2 (0.1–0.3) 5.3 (2.7–10.5)
 Pleural disorders 91 (2.8) 15,400 5.9 (4.8–7.3) 93 (0.5) 90,576 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 5.9 (4.4–7.9)
 Pulmonary hypertension 18 (0.6) 15,675 1.2 (0.7–1.8) 18 (0.1) 90,737 0.2 (0.1–0.3) 6.1 (3.2–11.8)
 Pulmonary embolism 49 (1.5) 15,568 3.2 (2.4–4.2) 78 (0.4) 90,595 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 3.8 (2.6–5.4)
 Diseases of the upper airway 15 (0.5) 15,655 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 29 (0.2) 90,685 0.3 (0.2–0.5) 3.1 (1.7–5.8)
 Pulmonary edema 8 (0.3) 15,703 0.5 (0.3–1.0) 15 (0.1) 90,752 0.2 (0.1–0.3) 3.3 (1.4–7.8)
  1. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, CI confidence interval
  2. aModel adjusted for age (continuous) and sex