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Table 4 Associated factors with RA versus controls: bivariate and multivariate analyses considering periodontitis Level 1, Level 2 or Level 1 + 2

From: Association between severity of periodontitis and clinical activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a case–control study

Factor Bivariate Multivariate Multivariate Level 1 + 2
OR 95% CI p Adjusted OR 95% CI p Adjusted OR 95% CI p
Periodontitis (ref. to no)
 Level 1 12.22 (4.67–31.98) < 0.001 14.78 (4.23–51.68) < 0.001    
 Level 2 46.86 (16.51–133) < 0.001 81.01 (18.59–353.07) < 0.001    
 Level 1 + 2 14.75 (5.66–34.4) < 0.001     20.57 (6.02–70.27) < 0.001
Age 1.00 (0.98–1.01) 0.564 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 0.003 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 0.003
Gender (ref. to woman) 0.491 (0.30–0.79) 0.004 0.18 (0.07–0.44) < 0.001 0.23 (0.10–0.54) 0.001
Socioeconomic status (ref. to poverty(Ext + Rel))
 High 0.20 (0.09–0.46) < 0.001 0.18 (0.05–0.60) 0.006 0.16 (0.05–0.53) 0.003
 Medium 0.28 (0.15–0.52) < 0.001 0.16 (0.05–0.47) 0.001 0.16 (0.05–0.46) 0.001
 Low 0.49 (0.28–0.86) 0.012 0.31 (0.13–0.75) 0.010 0.33 (0.14–0.77) 0.011
Annual dental prophylaxis (ref. to no) 0.56 (0.37–0.86) 0.008 0.52 (0.26–1.05) 0.070 0.49 (0.25–0.96) 0.039
Osteoporosis (ref. to no)
 Osteopenia 5.19 (2.72–9.88) < 0.001 5.95 (2.29–15.42) < 0.001 5.26 (2.18–12.65) < 0.001
 Osteoporosis 5.46 (2.59–11.50) < 0.001 8.00 (2.79–22.86) < 0.001 6.91 (2.53–18.90) < 0.001
Smoking (ref. to no)
 Smoker 3.06 (1.57–5.98) 0.001 1.08 (0.44–2.65) 0.858 1.62 (0.69–3.81) 0.269
 Former smoker 3.04 (1.66–5.56) < 0.001 7.67 (2.73–21.57) < 0.001 8.03 (2.93–22.02) < 0.001
Stress (ref. to no) 0.89 (0.56–1.43) 0.641 1.14 (0.51–2.57) 0.747 1.16 (0.54–2.49) 0.707
BMI (continuous) 1.00 (0.95–1.04) 0.879 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.078 0.94 (0.87–1.01) 0.091
HTA (ref. to no) 1.57 (0.96–2.55) 0.071 3.26 (1.35–7.87) 0.008 2.85 (1.26–6.49) 0.012
MI (ref. to no) 2.28 (0.59–8.74) 0.230 2.63 (0.38–18.42) 0.330 2.84 (0.40–20.24) 0.298
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, Ext + Rel extreme poverty plus relative poverty, HTA hypertension, MI myocardial infarction, OR odds ratio, RA rheumatoid arthritis, ref referred