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Table 5 Independent t test

From: Psychometric validation of the EuroQoL 5-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire in patients with spondyloarthritis

  BASDAI Peripheral arthritis
Low disease activity [< 4] (n = 135) High disease activity [≥ 4] (n = 85) P Mean difference 95% CI No (n = 133) Yes (n = 87) P Mean difference 95% CI
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
ODI score 12.0 10.7 30.5 15.6 < 0.001* − 18.4 (− 21.9, − 14.9) 17.8 15.0 21.2 16.5 0.112 −3.4 (−7.7, 0.8)
HADS score
 Depression 4.1 3.4 6.4 3.7 < 0.001* − 2.3 (− 3.3, − 1.3) 5.0 3.1 5.0 4.4 0.938 0.0 (−1.1, 1.0)
 Anxiety 4.9 3.5 7.4 3.6 < 0.001* − 2.5 (− 3.5, − 1.5) 5.9 3.6 5.8 3.9 0.934 0.0 (−1.0, 1.1)
 Total 8.9 6.3 13.8 6.7 < 0.001* − 4.9 (− 6.7, − 3.0) 10.8 6.2 10.8 7.9 0.952 0.1 (−1.9, 2.0)
EQ-5D VAS score 68.1 17.6 54.4 17.9 < 0.001* 13.7 (8.8, 18.5) 63.2 19.4 62.4 18.2 0.764 0.8 (−4.4, 5.9)
EQ-5D-5 L score 0.874 0.122 0.656 0.206 < 0.001* 0.2 (0.2, 0.3) 0.807 0.179 0.763 0.207 0.097 0.0 (0.0, 0.1)
BASFI 1.3 1.5 3.6 2.4 < 0.001* − 2.3 (− 2.8, − 1.8) 2.0 2.1 2.5 2.3 0.128 −0.5 (− 1.1, 0.1)
BASMI 3.8 1.6 4.2 1.5 0.058 − 0.4 (−  0.8, 0.0) 4.0 1.5 4.0 1.7 0.957 0.0 (− 0.4, 0.4)
SF-36
 Physical functioning 81.2 17.1 61.2 19.7 < 0.001* 20.0 (14.2, 25.9) 75.1 21.8 73.0 18.3 0.515 2.1 (−4.3, 8.5)
 Role physical 78.0 20.1 57.1 23.2 < 0.001* 20.9 (14.0, 27.8) 72.8 22.8 67.9 24.0 0.192 4.8 (−2.5, 12.1)
 Role emotional 80.4 21.3 57.7 25.8 < 0.001* 22.7 (15.2, 30.1) 72.8 24.6 72.0 26.4 0.838 0.8 (−7.1, 8.8)
 Vitality 58.7 18.8 41.4 16.4 < 0.001* 17.3 (11.4, 23.1) 51.9 19.5 53.8 20.1 0.551 −1.9 (−8.0, 4.3)
 Emotional well-being 70.3 16.4 61.1 18.2 0.001* 9.2 (3.7, 14.8) 67.3 16.7 66.7 18.8 0.839 0.6 (− 5.0, 6.1)
 Social functioning 83.8 18.4 65.2 23.1 < 0.001* 18.7 (12.1, 25.2) 77.3 23.0 77.5 20.6 0.943 −0.3 (−7.2, 6.7)
 Bodily pain 71.7 18.3 43.7 17.0 < 0.001* 28.1 (22.3, 33.9) 63.8 22.9 59.2 21.3 0.191 4.6 (−2.3, 11.6)
 General health 47.7 18.9 31.2 17.7 < 0.001* 16.5 (10.4, 22.7) 40.7 19.7 43.9 20.5 0.333 −3.1 (−9.6, 3.3)
 PCS 47.5 6.6 37.9 7.4 < 0.001* 9.6 (7.3, 11.9) 44.7 8.7 43.5 7.5 0.349 1.3 (−1.4, 3.9)
 MCS 47.9 9.4 41.0 11.5 < 0.001* 6.8 (3.5, 10.2) 45.1 10.3 46.0 11.2 0.625 −0.8 (−4.3, 2.6)
BASDAI 2.2 1.0 5.7 1.2 < 0.001* − 3.5 (− 3.8, − 3.2) 3.4 2.1 3.7 2.0 0.316 −0.3 (−0.8, 0.3)
ASDAS-CRP 1.1 0.7 2.5 0.8 < 0.001* − 1.5 (− 1.7, − 1.3) 1.6 1.0 1.7 1.1 0.563 − 0.1 (−  0.4, 0.2)
  Dactylitis Uveitis
No (n = 211) Yes (n = 8) P Mean difference 95% CI No (n = 140) Yes (n = 79) P Mean difference 95% CI
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
ODI score 18.9 15.5 25.4 18.9 0.248 − 6.5 (− 17.7, 4.6) 18.7 16.0 19.8 15.0 0.601 − 1.2 (−5.5, 3.2)
HADS score
 Depression 5.0 3.7 5.6 2.0 0.622 − 0.7 (− 3.2, 1.9) 4.9 3.6 5.1 3.9 0.697 −  0.2 (−1.3, 0.8)
 Anxiety 5.9 3.7 6.4 4.0 0.697 − 0.5 (− 3.2, 2.1) 5.9 3.7 5.8 3.8 0.819 0.1 (−1.0, 1.2)
 Total 10.8 6.9 12.0 5.5 0.633 − 1.2 (− 6.1, 3.7) 10.8 6.7 10.9 7.3 0.917 − 0.1 (−2.1, 1.9)
EQ-5D VAS score 63.3 18.9 55.3 17.2 0.240 8.0 (− 5.4, 21.4) 64.6 17.7 59.5 20.6 0.056 5.1 (−0.1, 10.3)
EQ-5D-5 L score 0.792 0.192 0.697 0.162 0.168 0.1 (0.0, 0.2) 0.794 0.194 0.779 0.188 0.583 0.0 (0.0, 0.1)
BASFI 2.1 2.1 2.9 3.0 0.331 − 0.8 (− 2.3, 0.8) 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.1 0.257 − 0.3 (−1.0, 0.3)
BASMI 3.9 1.5 5.0 2.2 0.068 − 1.0 (− 2.1, 0.1) 3.7 1.5 4.5 1.6 < 0.001* − 0.7 (−1.2, − 0.3)
SF-36
 Physical functioning 74.7 19.9 63.3 31.3 0.182 11.3 (− 5.4, 28.1) 75.1 20.7 72.5 19.9 0.434 2.6 (−4.0, 9.3)
 Role physical 71.0 23.6 65.6 20.4 0.587 5.3 (− 14.0, 24.6) 72.1 22.9 68.3 24.5 0.330 3.8 (−3.9, 11.4)
 Role emotional 72.1 25.5 77.8 20.9 0.592 − 5.7 (− 26.5, 15.2) 73.8 24.7 69.6 26.4 0.312 4.2 (−4.0, 12.4)
 Vitality 52.7 20.0 52.1 15.1 0.938 0.6 (− 15.7, 17.0) 53.0 19.9 52.4 19.6 0.863 0.6 (−5.9, 7.0)
 Emotional well-being 67.2 17.7 59.2 14.3 0.272 8.1 (− 6.4, 22.5) 66.9 18.1 67.6 16.7 0.807 −0.7 (−6.4, 5.0)
 Social functioning 77.4 22.1 72.9 20.0 0.624 4.5 (− 13.6, 22.6) 76.7 22.8 78.3 20.4 0.645 −1.7 (−8.9, 5.5)
 Bodily pain 61.9 22.0 55.8 26.6 0.515 6.0 (− 12.2, 24.3) 61.8 23.5 62.1 20.4 0.930 − 0.3 (−7.6, 7.0)
 General health 42.2 20.2 38.3 19.4 0.649 3.8 (− 12.8, 20.4) 42.3 19.7 41.5 21.1 0.808 0.8 (−5.9, 7.5)
 PCS 44.3 8.1 40.9 11.4 0.325 3.4 (− 3.4, 10.2) 44.6 8.5 43.5 7.9 0.460 1.0 (−1.7, 3.8)
 MCS 45.4 10.8 45.3 6.8 0.974 0.1 (−  8.6, 8.9) 45.7 11.0 45.2 10.1 0.770 0.5 (−3.0, 4.1)
BASDAI 3.5 2.0 4.2 2.0 0.327 − 0.7 (− 2.2, 0.7) 3.5 2.1 3.5 1.9 0.845 0.1 (−0.5, 0.6)
ASDAS-CRP 1.6 1.0 2.0 1.2 0.270 − 0.4 (− 1.1, 0.3) 1.6 1.0 1.7 1.1 0.393 − 0.1 (−0.4, 0.2)
  Psoriasis Any back pain
No (n = 187) Yes (n = 33) P Mean difference 95% CI No (n = 94) Yes (n = 126) P Mean difference 95% CI
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
ODI score 18.8 15.4 21.1 17.4 0.435 − 2.3 (− 8.1, 3.5) 15.1 15.7 19.4 15.7 0.245 − 4.3 (−11.6, 3.0)
HADS score
 Depression 4.8 3.5 6.0 4.1 0.079 − 1.2 (− 2.6, 0.1) 4.4 3.7 5.0 3.7 0.449 −0.7 (−2.4, 1.0)
 Anxiety 5.7 3.7 6.4 3.9 0.357 − 0.7 (− 2.0, 0.7) 5.1 3.7 6.0 3.7 0.332 − 0.9 (−2.6, 0.9)
 Total 10.5 6.8 12.4 7.5 0.150 − 1.9 (− 4.5, 0.7) 9.5 6.9 10.9 7.0 0.361 − 1.5 (−4.7, 1.7)
EQ-5D VAS score 62.9 19.2 62.8 17.1 0.975 0.1 (− 6.9, 7.2) 66.9 17.4 62.3 19.1 0.312 4.5 (−4.3, 13.3)
EQ-5D-5 L score 0.794 0.185 0.765 0.224 0.425 0.0 (0.0, 0.1) 0.813 0.180 0.788 0.193 0.576 0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)
BASFI 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.4 0.961 0.0 (− 0.8, 0.8) 1.8 2.9 2.2 2.1 0.416 −0.4 (−1.4, 0.6)
BASMI 4.0 1.6 3.7 1.3 0.269 0.3 (− 0.3, 0.9) 3.7 1.6 4.0 1.6 0.414 −0.3 (−1.0, 0.4)
SF-36
 Physical functioning 74.6 20.2 72.4 21.5 0.618 2.1 (− 6.3, 10.6) 74.7 26.9 74.1 19.8 0.918 0.6 (−10.2, 11.3)
 Role physical 71.5 23.4 67.0 23.7 0.354 4.5 (− 5.1, 14.1) 71.1 27.8 70.7 23.2 0.956 0.3 (−12.0, 12.7)
 Role emotional 72.7 25.4 71.7 25.4 0.861 0.9 (− 9.5, 11.3) 71.9 32.9 72.5 24.6 0.932 −0.6 (−13.9, 12.7)
 Vitality 52.9 20.0 51.6 18.8 0.742 1.4 (− 6.8, 9.5) 58.2 18.9 52.0 19.9 0.239 6.2 (−4.1, 16.5)
 Emotional well-being 67.5 17.5 64.6 18.1 0.438 2.9 (− 4.4, 10.2) 69.7 22.9 66.8 17.0 0.539 2.9 (−6.3, 12.1)
 Social functioning 78.5 21.8 72.3 22.4 0.180 6.1 (− 2.9, 15.1) 78.1 27.2 76.9 21.5 0.837 1.2 (−10.3, 12.7)
 Bodily pain 61.6 22.2 63.3 23.3 0.709 − 1.8 (− 11.1, 7.6) 69.7 24.4 61.0 22.2 0.158 8.6 (−3.4, 20.7)
 General health 42.5 20.1 39.8 19.9 0.537 2.7 (− 5.9, 11.2) 50.7 20.3 40.9 20.0 0.075 9.8 (−1.0, 20.5)
 PCS 44.3 8.3 43.5 8.3 0.657 0.8 (− 2.8, 4.4) 46.5 8.1 43.9 8.3 0.249 2.6 (−1.9, 7.1)
 MCS 45.7 10.7 44.6 10.5 0.648 1.1 (− 3.6, 5.8) 47.4 13.6 45.2 10.4 0.468 2.1 (−3.7, 7.9)
BASDAI 3.6 2.0 3.3 2.1 0.532 0.2 (− 0.5, 1.0) 2.6 1.7 3.6 2.0 0.036* − 1.0 (−1.9, −0.1)
ASDAS-CRP 1.7 1.0 1.4 1.0 0.171 0.3 (− 0.1, 0.6) 1.3 1.0 1.7 1.0 0.085 − 0.4 (−0.9, 0.1)
  Current back pain Spinal pain in the past week
No (n = 94) Yes (n = 126) P Mean difference 95% CI No (n = 94) Yes (n = 126) P Mean difference 95% CI
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
ODI score 10.3 12.9 21.7 15.5 < 0.001* − 11.5 (− 16.2, − 6.7) 5.6 8.0 20.7 15.6 < 0.001* − 15.1 (−21.6, −8.6)
HADS score
 Depression 3.4 2.9 5.4 3.8 < 0.001* − 2.0 (− 3.2, − 0.9) 3.3 2.5 5.2 3.7 0.020* − 1.9 (−3.5, − 0.3)
 Anxiety 4.9 3.6 6.2 3.7 0.045* − 1.2 (− 2.4, 0.0) 3.9 3.3 6.1 3.7 0.008* −2.2 (−3.8, −0.6)
 Total 8.3 5.8 11.6 7.1 0.004* − 3.2 (− 5.4, − 1.0) 7.3 5.1 11.3 7.0 0.009* − 4.0 (−7.0, −1.0)
EQ-5D VAS score 72.1 13.8 59.9 19.5 < 0.001* 12.2 (6.4, 18.0) 74.7 13.3 61.5 19.0 0.001* 13.2 (5.2, 21.3)
EQ-5D-5 L score 0.886 0.132 0.761 0.198 < 0.001* 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) 0.932 0.110 0.773 0.192 < 0.001* 0.2 (0.1, 0.2)
BASFI 1.2 1.8 2.5 2.2 < 0.001* − 1.4 (− 2.0, − 0.7) 0.8 1.8 2.4 2.2 < 0.001* − 1.6 (−2.6, − 0.7)
BASMI 3.7 1.6 4.1 1.6 0.112 − 0.4 (− 0.9, 0.1) 3.6 1.2 4.0 1.6 0.269 − 0.4 (−1.1, 0.3)
SF-36
 Physical functioning 82.7 20.8 71.1 19.6 0.001* 11.6 (4.5, 18.7) 87.9 19.3 72.9 20.0 0.008* 15.0 (3.9, 26.0)
 Role physical 80.2 23.3 67.4 22.9 0.002* 12.8 (4.6, 20.9) 86.6 18.6 69.2 23.3 0.007* 17.4 (4.7, 30.1)
 Role emotional 81.2 27.2 69.3 24.2 0.009* 11.9 (3.0, 20.7) 88.1 22.8 71.0 25.1 0.015* 17.1 (3.3, 30.8)
 Vitality 62.4 17.5 49.2 19.5 < 0.001* 13.1 (6.4, 19.9) 62.9 13.5 51.7 20.0 0.042* 11.2 (0.4, 22.0)
 Emotional well-being 70.5 17.9 65.9 17.5 0.155 4.6 (− 1.7, 10.9) 75.7 16.2 66.2 17.6 0.053 9.5 (−0.1, 19.1)
 Social functioning 86.9 19.3 73.5 21.9 < 0.001* 13.4 (5.8, 21.0) 92.0 16.0 76.0 22.0 0.009* 16.0 (4.0, 27.9)
 Bodily pain 79.1 18.2 55.8 20.7 < 0.001* 23.3 (16.1, 30.5) 91.7 11.8 59.3 21.1 < 0.001* 32.5 (20.7, 44.2)
 General health 48.3 20.1 39.6 19.8 0.019* 8.6 (1.4, 15.9) 54.6 12.8 40.9 20.2 0.018* 13.7 (2.4, 25.0)
 PCS 49.1 7.7 42.5 7.9 < 0.001* 6.7 (3.8, 9.5) 52.5 4.4 43.4 8.1 < 0.001* 9.0 (4.5, 13.6)
 MCS 48.5 10.1 44.4 10.8 0.037* 4.1 (0.2, 8.0) 52.1 8.0 44.9 10.7 0.019* 7.2 (1.2, 13.2)
BASDAI 2.0 1.3 4.0 2.0 < 0.001* − 2.0 (− 2.6, − 1.5) 1.1 0.9 3.8 1.9 < 0.001* −2.7 (−3.5, −1.9)
ASDAS-CRP 0.9 0.8 1.9 1.0 < 0.001* − 1.0 (− 1.3, − 0.7) 0.6 0.6 1.8 1.0 < 0.001* −1.1 (−1.5, −0.7)
  1. *Significant difference (P < 0.05)