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Table 6 ANOVA test

From: Psychometric validation of the EuroQoL 5-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire in patients with spondyloarthritis

  ASDAS-CRP HADS depression
Inactive disease (< 1.3) (n = 89) Moderate disease activity (1.3 to < 2.1) (n = 64) High disease activity (2.1 to < 3.5) (n = 57) Very high disease activity (> 3.5) (n = 9) P Normal (0–7) (n = 161) Borderline (8–10) (n = 30) Abnormal (11–21) (n = 12) P
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
ODI score 10.7 10.7 20.6 12.3 28.3 18.1 34.7 16.7 < 0.001* 15.1 12.9 32.6 15.2 40.4 17.3 < 0.001*
HADS score
 Depression 4.0 3.1 4.9 4.1 6.2 3.2 7.9 5.1 < 0.001* 3.4 2.2 9.0 0.7 13.4 2.4 < 0.001*
 Anxiety 4.8 3.4 6.2 4.0 7.0 3.4 6.9 4.7 0.005* 4.8 3.2 8.4 2.7 11.7 3.1 < 0.001*
 Total 8.8 6.0 11.1 7.6 13.2 6.1 14.8 9.2 < 0.001* 8.3 5.0 17.4 3.0 25.1 4.8 < 0.001*
EQ-5D VAS score 71.1 15.9 61.4 17.1 56.8 17.5 33.9 20.0 < 0.001* 66.1 17.3 53.1 17.9 40.9 16.7 < 0.001*
EQ-5D-5 L score 0.889 0.103 0.787 0.157 0.685 0.219 0.465 0.222 < 0.001* 0.834 0.149 0.640 0.220 0.557 0.266 < 0.001*
BASFI 0.9 1.3 2.3 1.6 3.6 2.5 5.1 2.2 < 0.001* 1.7 1.8 3.8 2.6 4.7 2.5 < 0.001*
BASMI 3.5 1.4 4.2 1.7 4.5 1.5 4.1 2.0 < 0.001* 3.8 1.5 4.7 1.4 4.4 1.7 0.004*
SF-36
 Physical functioning 84.2 15.9 69.7 16.8 57.8 21.5 55.0 0.0 < 0.001* 79.4 18.5 57.8 17.0 53.2 22.5 < 0.001*
 Role physical 80.5 17.8 67.7 22.8 53.1 24.3 37.5 0.0 < 0.001* 76.9 20.4 54.6 18.0 46.6 25.2 < 0.001*
 Role emotional 82.1 20.8 70.2 23.1 53.7 27.5 66.7 0.0 < 0.001* 79.7 21.5 56.5 17.2 32.6 23.7 < 0.001*
 Vitality 61.1 16.7 47.8 19.2 41.0 18.7 25.0 0.0 < 0.001* 58.0 18.1 39.4 9.7 21.0 14.3 < 0.001*
 Emotional well-being 71.5 15.3 64.0 18.4 61.5 19.3 60.0 0.0 0.017* 72.5 15.0 52.6 9.2 36.4 11.9 < 0.001*
 Social functioning 86.2 15.6 72.1 22.5 65.1 25.5 50.0 0.0 < 0.001* 83.5 18.3 63.0 20.1 40.9 14.9 < 0.001*
 Bodily pain 74.5 17.7 56.3 19.0 40.9 16.8 45.0 0.0 < 0.001* 66.7 21.5 50.0 20.8 38.9 12.7 < 0.001*
 General health 50.1 18.3 37.6 20.1 30.5 15.3 5.0 0.0 < 0.001* 46.1 19.8 34.3 14.7 17.0 12.3 < 0.001*
 PCS 48.8 6.5 42.1 6.5 36.8 7.3 30.7 0.0 < 0.001* 45.8 8.1 39.6 6.9 38.1 8.2 < 0.001*
 MCS 48.5 8.6 44.1 11.1 40.8 12.4 40.3 0.0 0.003* 48.8 8.9 38.0 4.3 24.4 7.0 < 0.001*
BASDAI 1.9 1.0 3.6 1.3 5.5 1.6 6.6 1.4 < 0.001* 3.1 1.9 4.7 1.9 5.3 2.0 < 0.001*
ASDAS-CRP 0.7 0.3 1.7 0.2 2.7 0.4 4.2 0.5 < 0.001* 1.4 0.9 2.1 1.0 2.4 1.0 < 0.001*
  HADS anxiety   ODI
Normal (0–7) (n = 137) Borderline (8–10) (n = 44) Abnormal (11–21) (n = 22) P Minimal disability (0–20) (n = 140) Moderate disability (21–40) (n = 54) Severe disability (41–60) (n = 22) Crippled (61–80) (n = 4) P
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
ODI score 16.0 13.9 22.6 15.7 34.0 18.4 < 0.001* 9.3 6.3 29.7 6.3 47.8 5.1 63.5 1.9 < 0.001*
HADS score
 Depression 3.3 2.5 7.5 3.0 9.7 3.7 < 0.001* 3.6 2.8 6.8 3.5 8.0 4.4 10.3 2.2 < 0.001*
 Anxiety 3.8 2.3 8.7 0.8 12.5 1.7 < 0.001* 4.7 3.4 7.3 3.2 8.1 4.3 9.3 4.5 < 0.001*
 Total 7.1 4.2 16.2 3.3 22.2 5.0 < 0.001* 8.3 5.7 14.1 6.1 16.1 8.1 19.5 5.7 < 0.001*
EQ-5D VAS score 65.9 17.4 57.5 19.9 51.4 19.1 < 0.001* 69.3 16.7 52.0 17.2 50.6 18.4 48.8 11.8 < 0.001*
EQ-5D-5 L score 0.831 0.151 0.770 0.173 0.551 0.272 < 0.001* 0.885 0.094 0.689 0.140 0.511 0.231 0.308 0.240 < 0.001*
BASFI 1.8 2.0 2.5 2.3 3.8 2.4 < 0.001* 1.1 1.3 3.4 1.5 5.3 2.2 7.0 2.5 < 0.001*
BASMI 3.8 1.5 4.0 1.5 4.6 1.7 0.068 3.6 1.5 4.5 1.6 4.8 1.6 5.5 0.7 < 0.001*
SF-36
 Physical functioning 77.0 19.9 72.2 19.6 60.9 23.7 0.010* 84.7 12.8 62.9 14.7 42.0 12.9 36.7 35.5 < 0.001*
 Role physical 77.3 20.4 58.6 19.9 55.9 27.1 < 0.001* 80.5 19.3 59.9 19.0 43.8 18.0 29.2 19.1 < 0.001*
 Role emotional 80.2 21.6 59.8 18.9 49.0 32.4 < 0.001* 81.4 21.2 61.6 21.2 53.9 29.4 19.4 17.3 < 0.001*
 Vitality 58.8 17.7 40.5 17.8 33.8 17.3 < 0.001* 60.1 17.1 43.9 17.8 31.7 14.1 31.3 16.5 < 0.001*
 Emotional well-being 74.3 14.3 52.9 12.4 44.7 13.0 < 0.001* 71.7 15.5 59.5 17.0 62.3 20.5 40.0 18.0 < 0.001*
 Social functioning 85.4 17.0 61.6 18.0 52.2 25.1 < 0.001* 86.1 17.4 67.2 18.5 55.8 24.9 37.5 12.5 < 0.001*
 Bodily pain 65.2 22.4 58.3 20.3 49.4 23.0 0.015* 72.9 17.5 48.0 14.3 31.5 16.7 34.2 11.3 < 0.001*
 General health 47.8 19.1 28.8 18.1 30.0 15.9 < 0.001* 48.7 17.4 29.8 19.0 36.3 20.7 15.0 8.7 < 0.001*
 PCS 45.2 8.3 42.8 8.3 41.5 8.9 0.131 48.5 5.6 39.0 6.2 32.1 5.5 32.9 8.0 < 0.001*
 MCS 49.9 8.0 36.9 7.4 32.0 10.3 < 0.001* 48.4 9.2 41.4 9.7 41.0 13.7 27.0 8.7 < 0.001*
BASDAI 3.1 1.9 4.0 1.9 5.0 2.2 < 0.001* 2.7 1.6 4.6 1.6 5.7 2.0 6.9 0.5 < 0.001*
ASDAS-CRP 1.4 1.0 1.8 1.0 2.1 1.1 0.003* 1.3 0.9 2.0 0.9 2.6 1.0 3.0 0.2 < 0.001*
  1. *Significant difference (P < 0.05)
  2. ANOVA analysis of variance, ODI Oswestry Disability Index, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, EQ-5D EuroQol 5-dimension, VAS visual analogue scale, EQ-5D-5 L EuroQol 5-dimension 5-level questionnaire, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, BASMI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, SF-36 Short Form 36-item questionnaire, PCS Physical Component Score, MCS Mental Component Score, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, ASDAS-CRP Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (C-reactive protein)