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Table 1 Clinical and serological characterization of the SLE patients, matched controls, and suggested aPL+ and SSA/SSB+ SLE subgroups

From: Two subgroups in systemic lupus erythematosus with features of antiphospholipid or Sjögren’s syndrome differ in molecular signatures and treatment perspectives

  Controls
n = 316 1
SLE
n = 378 1, 2
aPL+ SLE
n = 66 1
SSA/SSB+ SLE n = 63 1 Control vs.
aPL+ SLE p value 3
Control vs.
SSA/SSB+ SLE p value 3
aPL+ vs.
SSA/SSB+ SLE p value 3
Demographic/clinical
 Sampling age 48.1 (11.5) 47.7 (11.8) 47.9 (9.99) 48.6 (11.6) 8.7E−01 7.9E−01 9.8E−01
 Gender (%female) 92.1 (−) 87.3 (−) 83.3 (−) 84.1 (−) 3.6E−02 5.7E−02 1.0E+00
 Nephritis (%yes) 0.316 (−) 42.3 (−) 48.5 (−) 20.6 (−) 5.0E−27 3.0E−10 1.5E−03
 SLEDAI-2K 4 (3.5) 4 (3) 3 (2.75) 1.6E−02
 SLAM 6 (3) 6 (3.5) 7 (2.5) 7.4E−01
 SLICC total 1 (1) 2 (1.5) 1 (1) 1.1E−02
 Disease duration 11.6 (8.81) 10.3 (9.52) 8.42 (9.01) 8.2E−01
Serological/biochemical
 A1-antitrypsin (g/l) 1.4 (0.15) 1.4 (0.15) 1.5 (0.2) 1.4 (0.125) 8.7E−06 4.6E−01 3.3E−03
 Apo A (g/l) 1.7 (0.25) 1.5 (0.2) 1.4 (0.15) 1.4 (0.15) 3.3E−07 5.3E−06 5.0E−01
 Apo B (g/l) 0.81 (0.155) 0.81 (0.135) 0.83 (0.125) 0.79 (0.159) 1.5E−01 7.9E−01 2.2E−01
 C1q (% of normal) 103 (17.6) 101 (19.2) 105 (22) 5.5E−01
 C2 (% of normal) 118 (25.8) 105 (24) 144 (28.2) 1.4E−05
 C3 (g/l) 1.04 (0.145) 0.87 (0.165) 0.8 (0.135) 0.91 (0.149) 4.6E−14 5.5E−09 1.8E−01
 C3a (μg/l) 298 (1620) 270 (3586) 759 (1582) 1102 (1852) 6.8E−01 4.3E−01 3.6E−01
 C3dg (mg/l) 7.6 (2.05) 9.2 (1.93) 6.1 (1.58) 2.7E−05
 C4 (g/l) 0.21 (0.04) 0.15 (0.05) 0.125 (0.045) 0.15 (0.0338) 1.0E−17 3.9E−13 9.5E−02
 TCC (AU/l) 30 (25) 59 (153) 65 (57) 78 (74) 2.7E−04 3.4E−05 2.7E−01
 Creatinine (μmol/l) 66 (11) 69 (80) 72 (83) 69 (70) 5.6E−06 1.1E−02 8.2E−02
 SLEDAI-2K
Proteinurea = 4 (n)
39 (10%) 11 (17%) 3 (5%) 3.1E−02
 Fibrinogen (g/l) 3.8 (0.6) 4.1 (0.8) 4.5 (0.65) 4.1 (0.8) 4.4E−08 9.9E−02 8.8E−03
 Homocysteine (μmol/l) 9.3 (1.48) 12 (2.69) 13.6 (3.2) 11.3 (2.32) 3.6E−13 1.9E−08 1.1E−01
 Hs CRP (mg/l) 0.96 (0.825) 1.7 (2.22) 2.5 (3.73) 1.8 (2.26) 1.5E−08 1.7E−04 5.3E−02
 ESR 8.5 (8) 19 (22) 31 (25) 29 (30) 2.2E−16 2.2E−16 7.5E−1
 IgA (g/l) 2.1 (0.674) 2.8 (0.938) 2.65 (1.04) 2.9 (1.2) 3.8E−03 1.6E−04 4.8E−01
 IgG (g/l) 10.9 (1.35) 12.8 (3.18) 12.6 (3.19) 16 (5.18) 1.0E-05 6.1E−12 5.4E−03
 IgM (g/l) 1 (0.393) 0.93 (0.414) 1.2 (0.526) 0.82 (0.268) 7.1E−01 1.0E−04 8.1E−03
 RF-IgA (IU/ml) 3.7 (1.8) 5.3 (3.8) 5.7 (2.4) 29.5 (30.6) 3.1E−03 1.3E−10 1.5E−05
 RF-IgG (μg/ml) 7.5 (3.2) 11.0 (6.5) 11.0 (6.4) 26.0 (20.5) 2.3E−03 6.4E−10 9.1E−04
 RF-IgM (IU/ml) 1.1 (0.6) 1.3 (2.2) 1.2 (0.9) 10.5 (14.6) 0.7 4.2E−15 2.1 E−08
 Leucocytes (× E9/l) 5.5 (1) 5.1 (1.55) 5.5 (1.7) 4.8 (1.35) 6.4E−01 4.9E−05 1.8E−02
 Lymphocytes (× E9/l) 1.8 (0.3) 1.1 (0.35) 1.1 (0.362) 0.9 (0.275) 9.6E−17 5.7E−23 1.5E−01
 Neutrophils (× E9/l) 3 (0.8) 3.2 (1.3) 3.55 (1.46) 3.2 (1.17) 3.4E−02 2.8E−01 2.7E−02
 Platelets (× E9/l) 260 (36.5) 234 (50) 219 (47) 225 (61.8) 7.4E−06 8.0E−03 1.9E−01
 TG mmol/l) 0.77 (0.275) 1 (0.355) 1.4 (0.385) 0.9 (0.34) 1.2E−10 1.1E−02 1.5E−03
 VCAM (μg/l) 364 (71) 388 (95) 444 (93.9) 367 (91.4) 2.1E−04 4.4E−01 5.7E−02
  1. 1Data reported as median and IQR
  2. 2This column represents the data from the entire SLE cohort including the aPL+ and SSA/SSB+ SLE subgroups
  3. 3p value obtained by Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Fisher’s exact test. p values < 0.05 are highlighted in italics