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Table 2 Crude and adjusted hazard ratios of predictors of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients

From: Incidence and survival impact of pulmonary arterial hypertension among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a nationwide cohort study

Variables Crude HR (95% CI) P value Adjusted HR (95% CI) P value
Sex
 Female 1.51 (1.01–2.23) 0.04 1.56 (1.05–2.32) 0.03
 Male 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
Age group, years
 < 45 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 45–64 0.94 (0.72–1.24) 0.7 0.80 (0.60–1.08) 0.15
 ≥ 65 1.45 (0.96–2.19) 0.07 1.05 (0.66–1.68) 0.82
Comorbidity
 Diabetes mellitus 1.21 (0.72–2.04) 0.46 0.99 (0.56–1.72) 0.97
 Hypertension 1.80 (1.39–2.34) < 0.001 2.17 (1.59–2.97) < 0.001
 Dyslipidemia 1.00 (0.64–1.55) 0.99 0.80 (0.49–1.28) 0.35
 Chronic kidney disease 0.81 (0.52–1.25) 0.34 0.66 (0.42–1.04) 0.07
  1. Adjusted for age, sex, and the listed comorbidities
  2. HR hazard ratio