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Table 3 Crude and adjusted hazard ratios of predictors for mortality among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients

From: Incidence and survival impact of pulmonary arterial hypertension among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a nationwide cohort study

Variables Crude HR (95% CI) P value Adjusted HR (95% CI) P value
Pulmonary arterial hypertension 2.09 (1.09–1.57) < 0.001 2.20 (1.78–1.71) < 0.001
Sex
 Female 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Male 1.83 (1.64–2.05) < 0.001 1.29 (1.15–1.44) < 0.001
Age group, years
 < 45 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 45–64 2.28 (2.04–2.54) < 0.001 1.88 (1.68–2.11) < 0.001
 ≥ 65 9.42 (8.46–10.09) < 0.001 6.07 (5.32–6.92) < 0.001
Comorbidity
 Diabetes mellitus 4.27 (3.76–4.85) < 0.001 1.59 (1.38–1.83) < 0.001
 Hypertension 3.82 (3.48–4.19) < 0.001 1.48 (1.32–1.67) < 0.001
 Dyslipidemia 2.24 (1.96–2.55) < 0.001 0.85 (0.74–0.98) 0.033
 Chronic kidney disease 2.99 (2.68–3.34) < 0.001 1.88 (1.67–2.72) < 0.001
  1. Adjusted for age, sex, and the listed comorbidities
  2. HR hazard ratio