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Table 1 Characteristics of the cohort

From: High levels of circulating interferons type I, type II and type III associate with distinct clinical features of active systemic lupus erythematosus

Characteristics SLE, n = 497 Population controls, n = 322 p value
Age, M (SD) 46 (15) 47.8 (14.7) ns
Gender (male/female) 67/429 26/296 ns
Caucasians 89% 97% < 0.0001
Current smoking 18.5% 14% ns
Malar rash 48.5%  
Discoid rash 18%  
Photosensitivity 63%  
Oral ulceration 34%  
Arthritis 82%  
Serositis 40%  
Nephritis 42%  
Neuropsychiatric (NPSLE) 11.5%  
Leukopenia 48%  
Lymphopenia 54%  
Thrombocytopenia 20%  
Haemolytic anaemia 6%  
Positive ANA, ever 99% nd  
Positive anti-dsDNA, ever 67% nd  
SLAM > 6 49%  
SLEDAI > 6 26%  
SDI > 0 64%  
Arterial events 11% 1.25% < 0.0001
Venous thromboembolic events 16.5% 1.25% < 0.0001
Any vascular events 24% 2.5% < 0.0001
Prednisolone dose^, M (SD) 9 (45) mg na  
Prednisolone 10 mg or more 25% na  
Mean and standard deviation of the measurements
 Type I IFN activity 12.1 (36) 1.3 (1.5) < 0.0001
 IFN-α pg/ml 161.4 (161) 45.1 (69) 0.0002
 IFN-γ pg/ml 25.9 (79) 13.5(69) 0.02
 IFN-λ1 pg/ml 811.2 (1989) 472.3 (1208) 0.01
Proportions of the groups with high IFN levels
 Type I IFN activityH (score > 5.5) 25% 2% < 0.0001
  25% 6.5% < 0.0001
 IFN-αH 25% 14.5% 0.003
 IFN-γH (> 19.5 pg/ml) 25% 6.5% < 0.0001
 IFN-λ1H 25% 13.5% 0.0009
  1. Characteristics of SLE, as defined by 1982 ACR SLE classification criteria, if ever observed [23]. Student t test and Mann-Whitney tests were used for comparison
  2. SLAM, systemic lupus activity measure; SLEDAI, SLE Disease Activity Index; SDI, SLE disease damage index; arterial events, objectively verified coronary heart disease or stroke; venous thromboembolic events, pulmonary or/and deep venous thrombosis, any vascular events include history of either arterial or venous events, or both; nd, not done, na, not applicable
  3. HPatients with IFN levels over the third quartile were defined as high expressers
  4. ^Prednisolone dose or bioequivalent steroid dose