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Table 3 Outcome measure scores and effect estimates adjusted from baseline

From: Effects of a footwear intervention on foot pain and disability in people with gout: a randomised controlled trial

  Footwear intervention group mean (SD) Control group mean (SD) Adjusted effect estimate P
Foot pain VAS
 Baseline 14.8 (18.7) 17.5 (22.4)   
 2 months 10.7 (13.0) 16.8 (21.8) − 5.0 (− 12.9 to 2.8) 0.21
 4 months 13.8 (23.0) 16.1 (22.3) − 1.8 (− 10.1 to 6.4) 0.66
 6 months 13.1 (20.8) 20.5 (26.1) − 6.7 (− 16.4 to 2.9) 0.17
Overall pain VASa
 Baseline 18.7 (19.6) 17.7 (23.9)   
 2 months 9.7 (13.6) 23.3 (27.5) − 13.2 (− 22.2 to − 4.3) < 0.01
 4 months 16.2 (19.4) 17.9 (22.8) − 2.3 (− 0.5 to 0.6) 0.65
 6 months 16.3 (19.2) 20.7 (26.8) − 4.0 (− 13.6 to 5.7) 0.42
Patient Global Assessment VASa
 Baseline 22.7 (24.5) 21.5 (25.8)   
 2 months 17.7 (24.2) 16.4 (21.6) 1.2 (− 7.4 to 9.9) 0.78
 4 months 14.6 (16.6) 16.6 (20.2) − 2.8 (− 11.9 to 6.3) 0.55
 6 months 15.3 (19.4) 18.8 (21.9) − 3.4 (− 12.6 to 5.7) 0.46
Health Assessment Questionnaire II
 Baseline 0.5 (0.6) 0.4 (0.5)   
 2 months 0.5 (0.6) 0.4 (0.4) − 0.1 (− 0.3 to 0.1) 0.36
 4 months 0.6 (0.6) 0.3 (0.5) 0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2) 0.84
 6 months 0.5 (0.5) 0.4 (0.6) − 0.1 (− 0.3 to 0.1) 0.28
LFIS total score
 Baseline 15.5 (11.5) 15.4 (12.5)   
 2 months 13.8 (13.0) 16.4 (14.1) − 4.7 (− 9.1 to − 0.3) 0.04
 4 months 14.9 (14.2) 14.2 (12.3) − 1.3 (− 6.1 to 3.5) 0.59
 6 months 14.4 (13.6) 16.9 (14.2) − 3.0 (0.2 to 1.8) 0.21
LLTQ activities of daily l
 Baseline 32.7 (8.2) 33.8 (6.8)   
 2 months 34.8 (7.2) 32.9 (8.0) 2.2 (− 0.2 to 4.6) 0.07
 4 months 32.9 (8.1) 35.4 (6.7) − 0.4 (− 3.1 to 2.3) 0.77
 6 months 34.0 (6.9) 33.8 (7.7) 1.1 (− 1.2 to 3.4) 0.35
LLTQ recreational activitiesb
 Baseline 22.7 (11.8) 21.1 (11.6)   
 2 months 23.5 (14.2) 22.8 (11.5) 0.8 (− 2.8 to 4.4) 0.66
 4 months 20.8 (12.8) 25.1 (9.9) − 3.4 (− 7.5 to 0.8) 0.11
 6 months 21.7 (12.6) 22.2 (12.0) − 0.9 (− 4.8 to 3.0) 0.66
Footwear comfort VASc
 Baseline 24.0 (21.9) 27.6 (28.0)   
 2 months 10.3 (13.1) 26.2 (26.5) − 10.4 (− 19.9 to − 0.9) 0.03
 4 months 9.1 (9.8) 24.0 (21.0) − 11.3 (− 21.4 to − 1.3) 0.03
 6 months 17.5 (23.5) 27.9 (28.4) − 8.0 (− 19.2 to 3.3) 0.16
Footwear fit VASd
 Baseline 20.6 (20.1) 24.0 (27.2)   
 2 months 9.8 (16.0) 22.2 (21.3) − 9.5 (− 17.2 to − 1.8) 0.02
 4 months 10.3 (13.6) 22.2 (20.4) − 11.1 (− 19.9 to − 2.4) 0.01
 6 months 11.9 (20.0) 27.9 (28.4) − 11.1 (− 21.1 to − 1.0) 0.03
Footwear ease VASe
 Baseline 20.9 (23.0) 19.3 (23.8)   
 2 months 12.7 (19.1) 26.8 (28.2) − 9.8 (− 19.4 to − 0.3) 0.04
 4 months 10.2 (16.6) 23.8 (25.2) − 12.3 (− 23.0 to − 1.6) 0.02
 6 months 11.3 (19.7) 27.9 (28.4) − 13.2 (− 23.8 to − 2.7) 0.01
Footwear weight VASd
 Baseline 21.9 (21.9) 22.7 (24.6)   
 2 months 12.7 (17.8) 27.0 (26.6) − 9.7 (− 19.5 to 0.0) 0.05
 4 months 13.6 (20.3) 24.6 (20.4) − 10.8 (− 20.6 to − 0.9) 0.03
 6 months 11.4 (19.7) 27.9 (28.4) − 10.3 (− 19.8 to − 0.8) 0.03
  1. VAS visual analogue scale, LFIS Leeds Foot Impact Scale, LLTQ Lower Limb Tasks Questionnaire
  2. aBMI adjusted
  3. bAge adjusted
  4. cBMI and prednisone adjusted
  5. dSex and BMI adjusted
  6. eEthnicity and BMI adjusted
  7. Data in italics indicates statistical significance