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Fig. 3 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 3

From: Increased peptidylarginine deiminases expression during the macrophage differentiation and participated inflammatory responses

Fig. 3

Effects of PADI inhibitors on proinflammatory cytokines secretion in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). a U937 cells, differentiated macrophages, and macrophages stimulated with LPS for 24 h, macrophages cocultured with LPS and sanguinarine (SANG), ruthenium red (RUR), or Cl-amidine for 24 h. The culture soups were collected for further analysis of a TNF-α, b IL-1β, and c IL-6 concentration using ELISA. d U937 cells, differentiated macrophages, and macrophages stimulated with LPS for 24 h, macrophages cocultured with LPS and SANG, RUR, or Cl-amidine for 48 h. The apoptotic rate of these cells was measured using flow cytometry analysis. P < 0.05 compared with U937 cells. *P < 0.05 compared with differentiated macrophages. #P < 0.05 compared with differentiated macrophage stimulated with LPS

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