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Table 1 Seminal studies describing TNFi drug retention rates and TNFi dose reduction, tapering or discontinuation

From: Biological treatment of ankylosing spondylitis: a nationwide study of treatment trajectories on a patient level in clinical practice

Author No. AS patients TNFi drug retention rate
 Carmona et al. 2006 [5] 657 1 year 88%, 2 years 82%, 3 years 76%
 Heiberg et al. 2008 [8] 249 1 year 78%
 Pavelka et al. 2009 [7] 310 1 year 84%, 2 years 76%, 3 years 72%
 Glintborg et al. 2010 [9] 842 1 year 74%, 2 years 63%
 Kristensen et al. 2010 [16] 243 2 years 74%
 Lie et al. 2011 [14] 514 1 year 76%, 2 years 65%
 Arends et al. 2011 [12] 220 1 year 71%, 2 years 66%
 Arends et al. 2012 [13] 111 3 years 65%
 Glintborg et al. 2013 [11] 1436 2 years 58%
 Heinonen et al. 2015 [15] 543 1 year 84%, 2 years 75%
 Lorenzin et al. 2015 [17] 70 1 year 77%, 2 years 70%, 3 years 57%, 4 years 53%, 5 years 50%
 Arends et al. 2017 [33] 89 7 years 51%
Author No. AS patients TNFi discontinuation or reduction
 Baraliakos et al. 2005 [31] 42 91% relapse 36 weeks after infliximab discontinuation
 Brandt et al. 2005 [32] 26 > 2/3 relapse 12 weeks after etanercept discontinuation
 Zhao et al. 2018 [34] 35 60% relapse 3 years after etanercept discontinuation
 Lee et al. 2010 [35] 109 Etanercept dose reduction may be possible
 De Stefano et al. 2014 [36] 38 Etanercept reduction may be possible at clinical remission
 Cantini et al. 2013 [37] 78 Etanercept reduction may be possible at clinical remission
 Yates et al. 2015 [38] 89 Etanercept dose reduction may be possible
 Zavada et al. 2016 [39] 136 TNFi reduction may be possible at low disease activity
 Park et al. 2016 [40] 165 TNFi reduction linked to more rapid radiographic progression
 Fong et al. 2016 [41] 125 TNFi reduction may be possible at low disease activity
  1. AS ankylosing spondylitis, TNFi tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitor