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Table 2 Key features of previous studies on survivorship in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA)

From: Survival and death causes of patients with giant cell arteritis in Western Norway 1972–2012: a retrospective cohort study

Author and year of publication (Reference) Time period and country Study design Inclusion criteria Number of subjects (N) Main conclusions—survival/mortality
Cases Controls Overall Cause-specific
Lee 2018 [10] 1950–2010
Multi-national
Meta-analysis (8 studies included) ACR 1990 or biopsy-proven Pooled 1972 (877 deaths) Expected rates No difference Increased CVD mortality
Hill 2017 [9] 1979–2015a
Multi-national
Meta-analysis (17 studies included) ACR 1990 or biopsy-proven Pooled 4733 (1853 deaths) Expected rates Excess mortality in hospital-basedb NR
Brekke (PS) 1972–2012
Norway
Retrospective, hospital-based Clinical diagnosis 881 (490 deaths) 2577 matched No difference Increased CVD mortality, reduced cancer mortality
ACR 1990 792 (432 deaths) 2314 matched
Biopsy-proven 528 (292 deaths) 1584 matched
Aouba 2018 [13] 1980–2011
France
Retrospective, population-based Death certificate listing GCA as a death cause c 14,996 deaths Expected rates No difference Increased CVD mortality, reduced cancer mortality
Li 2018 [14] 1990–2014
UK
Retrospective, population-based Diagnosis of GCA in primary care database 9778 (3453 deaths) 92,268 matched Excess mortality first 5 years, no difference long-term NR
Catanoso 2017 [34] 1986–2013d
Italy
Retrospective, population-based Biopsy-proven 285 (120 deaths) 285 matched No difference No difference
Baslund 2015 [35] 1993–2011
Denmark
Retrospective, population-based Biopsy-proven 1787 (846 deaths) 33,953 matched Excess mortality early and late after diagnosis Increased CVD mortality, reduced cancer mortality
Mohammad 2015 [36] 1997–2010 Sweden Retrospective, population-based Biopsy-proven 840 (279 deaths) Expected rates Excess mortality first 2 years, no difference long term NR
Kermani 2013 [37] 1950–2009e
USA
Retrospective, population-based ACR 1990 204 (154 deaths) Expected rates No difference (except if LV manifestations) Increased GIT mortality
Ninan 2011 [27] 1992–2006
Australia
Retrospective, population-based Biopsy-proven 225 (71 deaths) Expected rates No difference NR
Crow 2009 [15] 1991–2005
USA
Retrospective, hospital-based Biopsy-proven 44 (21 deaths) 4400 matched Excess mortality 5 years after GCA diagnosis NR
Salvarani 2004 [12] 1950–1999
USA
Retrospective, population-based ACR 1990 173 (NR) Expected rates No difference NR
Uddhammar 2002 [16] 1973–1995
Sweden
Retrospective, hospital-based Biopsy-proven (all fulfilled ACR1990) 136 (114 deaths) Expected rates Excess mortality (women only) Increased CVD mortality
Gran 2001 [17] 1987–1997
Norway
Prospective, population-based Biopsy-proven 64 (13 deaths) 256 matched No difference NR
Gonzalez-Gay 1997 [18] 1982–1996
Spain
Retrospective, population-based Biopsy-proven 109 (22 deaths) Expected rates No difference No difference
Matteson 1996 [19] 1981–1993
USA
Retrospective, hospital-based ACR 1990 205 (49 deaths) Expected rates No difference NR
Nesher 1994 [8] 1978–1992
Israel
Retrospective, hospital-based Biopsy-proven or ACR 1990 43 (19 deaths) Expected rates Excess mortality (mainly first year) NR
Rajala 1993 [20] 1969–1991
Finland
Retrospective, hospital-based Biopsy-proven 66 (NR) Expected rates No difference (unless pre-existing CVD) NR
Bisgård 1991 [11] 1973–1987
Denmark
Retrospective, hospital-based Biopsy-proven 34 (18 deaths) Expected rates Excess mortality NR
Clinical diagnosis (probable) 146 (57 deaths)
Clinical diagnosis (possible) 85 (52 deaths)
Nordborg 1989 [21] 1977–1987
Sweden
Retrospective, population-based Biopsy-proven 284 (82 deaths) Expected rates No difference Increased vascular mortality first year
Boesen 1987 [22] 1982–1985f Prospective, population-based Clinical diagnosis (including PMR) 46g (5 deaths) Expected rates No difference NR
Fjermestad 1983 [23] 1965–1980
Norway
Retrospective, hospital-based Biopsy-proven 53 (14 deaths) Expected rates No difference NR
Graham 1981 [24] 1968–1978
UK
Retrospective, hospital-based Biopsy-proven 90 (32 deaths) Expected rates Excess mortality (women only) NR
Jonasson 1979 [25] 1964–1977
Scotland
Retrospective, population-based Biopsy-proven 124 (51 deaths) Expected rates No difference No difference CVD mortality, NR other
Huston 1978 [26] 1950–1976h Retrospective, population-based Biopsy-proven or study-specific clinical criteria 42 (21 deaths) Expected rates No difference No difference
  1. ACR American College of Rheumatology, CVD cardiovascular disease, GCA giant cell arteritis, GIT gastrointestinal/digestive, LV large vessel, NR not reported, PMR polymyalgia rheumatica, PS present study, UK United Kingdom, USA United States of America
  2. aPublication period
  3. bExcess mortality in hospital-based cohorts only, not in population-based cohorts
  4. cUnderlying or contributing death cause
  5. dCase inclusion thru 2012, registration of deaths extending thru 2013
  6. eCase inclusion thru 2004, registration of deaths extending thru 2009
  7. fCase inclusion thru 1982, registration of deaths extending thru 1985
  8. g15 of 46 patients were biopsy-positive
  9. hCase inclusion thru 1974, registration of deaths extending thru 1976