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Table 1 Characteristics of the selected studies

From: Prognostic factors for progression of osteoarthritis of the hip: a systematic review

Study Design Participants in the cohort (n) Assessment of progression Follow-up period
Agricola et al. [11] Prospective cohort (CHECK) 1002 (analyzed 723 patients) THR 5 years
Agricola et al. [12] Prospective cohort (CHECK) 1002 (analyzed 550 women) THR due to OA 5 years
Agricola et al. [12] Nested case-control (Chingford cohort) 1003 (analyzed 114) THR due to OA 19 years
Auquier et al. [13] Retrospective cohort 131 Increase in stage of pain and function, stages minimal, moderate, moderate-severe, severe 6–23 years
Barr et al. [14] Case-control 195 (analyzed 102 patients) THR (compared to non-progression hips: increase of ≤ 1 K-L grade) 5 years
Bastick et al. [15] Prospective cohort (CHECK) 545 (analyzed 363 patients) NRS score for pain, group moderate progression compared to mild pain. Groups based on LCGA 5 years
Bastick et al. [16] Prospective cohort (CHECK) 588 (analyzed 538) THR 5 years
Bergink et al. [17] Prospective cohort (Rotterdam I) 176 1. Increase ≥ 1 K-L grade 2. Decrease ≥ 1 mm of joint space Average 8.4 years
Birn et al. [18] Case-control 94 (5 cases, 89 controls) Rapidly destructive OA: > 2 mm or > 50% JSN/year NR
Birrell et al. [19] Prospective cohort 195 Time to being put on a waiting list for THR 36 months
Bouyer et al. [20] Prospective cohort (KHOALA) 242 (analyzed 133 patients) 1. Increase ≥ 1 K-L grade 2. Increase ≥ 1 JSN score 3. Time to THR 3 years
Castano Betancourt et al. [21] Prospective cohort (GOAL) 189 JSN ≥ 20% compared to baseline or THR 2 years
Chaganti et al. [22] Nested case-control (SOF) 168 cases and 173 controls Decrease in MJS of 0.5 mm, increase of ≥ 1 in summary grade, increase ≥ 2 in total osteophyte score, or THR for OA Average 8.3 years
Chevalier et al. [23] Prospective cohort 30 Rapid evolution: JSN > 0.6 mm/year 1 year
Conrozier et al. [24] Case-control 104 (analyzed 10 cases, 23 controls) Rapidly progressive hip OA: severe hip pain, symptom onset within the last 2 years, annual rate of JSN > 1 mm, ESR < 20 mm/h, absence of detectable inflammatory or crystal-induced joint disease NR
Conrozier et al. [25] Retrospective cohort 89 Radiographic: YMN, calculated from MJS in mm/year 18–300 months
Conrozier et al. [26] Prospective cohort 48 JSN in mm/year 1 year
Danielsson [27, 28] Prospective cohort 168 1. Increase in pain index 0–5 2. Operation because of hip OA 3. Increase in radiographic index 0–10 8–12 years
van Dijk et al. [29] Prospective cohort 123 1. Decrease in WOMAC function 2. Increase in seconds of timed walking test 3 years
van Dijk et al. [30] Prospective cohort 123 1. Decrease in WOMAC function 2. Increase in seconds of timed walking test 3 years
Dorleijn et al. [31] Prospective cohort (GOAL) 222 (analyzed 111 patients) VAS score for pain, group highly progressive compared to mild pain groups based on LCGA 2 years
Dougados et al. [32] Prospective cohort (ECHODIAH) 508 (analyzed 461 patients) Radiological: ≥ 0.6 mm decrease in JSW 1 year
Dougados et al. [33] Prospective cohort (ECHODIAH) 508 (analyzed 463 patients) Radiological: > 0.5 mm decrease in JSW 2 years
Dougados et al. [34] Prospective cohort 508 Time to the requirement of THR 3 years
Fukushima et al. [35] Prospective cohort 20 Increase in Tönnis grade 25 months
Golightly et al. [36] Prospective cohort (Johnston County) 1453 Increase in K-L grade or increase in hip symptoms (mild, moderate, severe) 3–13 years
Gossec et al. [37] Prospective cohort 741 (analyzed 505 patients) THR 2 years
Hartofilakidis et al. [38] Retrospective cohort 210 THR 2 to > 10 years
Hawker et al. [39] Prospective cohort 2128 Time to THR 6.1 years
Hoeven et al. [40] Prospective cohort (Rotterdam I) 5650 (number analyzed: NR) Increase ≥ 1 K-L grade baseline to follow-up 10 years
Holla et al. [41] Prospective cohort (CHECK) 588 Moving into a higher group (quintiles of WOMAC-PF 0–68) or remaining within the three highest groups 2 years
Juhakoski et al. [42] Prospective cohort 118 1. WOMAC pain (0–100) 2. WOMAC function (0–100) 2 years
Kalyoncu et al. [43] Retrolective cohort (ECHODIAH) 192 THR 10 years
Kelman et al. [44] Nested case-control (SOF) 396 (cases 197, controls 199) Decrease in minimum joint space of ≥ 0.5 mm, an increase of ≥ 1 in the summary grade, an increase of ≥ 2 in total osteophyte score, or THR 8.3 years
Kerkhof et al. [45] Prospective cohort (Rotterdam I) 1610 Radiologic: JSN ≤ 1.0 mm or THR during follow-up NR
Kopec et al. [46] Prospective cohort (Johnston County) 1590 (analyzed 571 people) Increase ≥ 1 in K-L grade 3–13 years
Lane et al. [47] Prospective cohort (SOF) 745 Decrease in minimum joint space of ≥ 0.5 mm, an increase of ≥ 1 in the summary grade, an increase of ≥ 2 in total osteophyte score, or THR 8 years
Lane et al. [48] Nested case-control (SOF) 342 Radiological: decrease in minimum joint space of ≥ 0.5 mm, an increase of ≥ 1 in the summary grade, an increase of ≥ 2 in total osteophyte score, or THR 8.3 years
Laslett et al. [49] Prospective cohort (TasOAC) 1099 (analyzed 765 people) WOMAC pain (0–100) 2–4 years
Ledingham 1993 [50] Prospective cohort 136 1. Global assessment of radiographic change 2. THR 3–73 months
Lievense et al. [51] Prospective cohort 224 (analyzed 163 patients) THR 5.8 years
Maillefert et al. [52] Prospective cohort (ECHODIAH) 508 1. Decrease in JSW > 50% during the first year follow-up 2. THR in 1–5 years of follow-up 5 years
Mazieres et al. [53] Prospective cohort (ECHODIAH) 507 (analyzed 333 patients) JSN ≥ 0.5 mm or THP 3 years
Nelson et al. [54] Prospective cohort (Johnston County) 309 1. Increase in K-L grade 2. Increase in osteophyte severity grade 3. Increase in JSN severity grade 5 years
Perry et al. [55] Case-control 44 Radiographic: progressive deterioration 5–14 years
Peters et al. [56] Prospective cohort 587 (analyzed 214 patients) New Zealand score 0–80 (combination of pain and function) 7 years
Pisters et al. [57] Prospective cohort 149 Increase in WOMAC function on average over time (measured at 1, 2, 3, 5 years) 5 years
Pollard 201et al. 2 [58] Prospective cohort 264 Signs on examination of hip OA or symptoms at baseline and signs and symptoms at follow-up 5 years
Reijman et al. [59] Prospective cohort (Rotterdam I) 1235 JSN ≥ 1.0 mm in at least 1 of 3 compartments (lateral, superior, axial) 6.6 years
Reijman et al. [60] Prospective cohort (Rotterdam I) 1904 Radiologic: JSN ≤ 1.0 mm or THR during follow-up 6.6 years
Reijman et al. [61] Prospective cohort (Rotterdam I) 1676 1. JSN of ≥ 1 mm 2. JSN of ≥ 1.5 mm 3. Increase of ≥ 1 K-L grade 6.6 years
Solignac [62] Prospective cohort (ECHODIAH) 507 (analyzed 333 patients) JSN ≥ 0.5 mm or THP 3 years
van Spil et al. [63] Prospective cohort (CHECK) 1002 (analyzed 178 patients) Radiographic: ≥ 1 K-L grade increase 5 years
Thompson et al. [64] Case-control 34 cases, controls: NR Rapidly progressive OA: loss of bone or a combined loss of bone and articular cartilage at rate > 5 mm per year 18 months
Tron et al. [65] Retrospective cohort 39 Mean annual JSN in mm NR
Verkleij et al. [66] Prospective cohort (GOAL) 222 (analyzed 111 patients) VAS score for pain, group highly progressive compared to mild pain, groups based on LCGA 2 years
Vinciguerra et al. [67] Retrospective cohort 149 Time to THR Variable
  1. NR not reported, OA osteoarthritis THR total hip replacement, K-L grade Kellgren and Lawrence grade, MJS minimum joint space, JSN joint space narrowing, JSW joint space width, YMN yearly mean narrowing, LCGA latent class growth analysis, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, NRS numeric rating scale, VAS visual analog scale