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Table 5 Factors predicting clinical progression

From: Prognostic factors for progression of osteoarthritis of the hip: a systematic review

Prognostic factor Studies Associations Best-evidence synthesis
Patient variables
 No association
  Female Strong evidence for no association
  2 low risk of bias cohorts [41, 57] 5 cohorts [13, 27, 42, 56, 66] No, no Positive, no, no, no, no
  Social support Strong evidence for no association
  2 low risk of bias cohorts [41, 57] No, no
  Higher age at baseline Moderate evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41, 57] 3 cohorts [42, 56, 66] No, positive No, no, no
  Paid employment Moderate evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] 2 cohorts [42, 56] No No, no
  Living alone Moderate evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] 1 cohort [30] No No
  Alcohol consumption Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] No
 Conflicting evidence
  Physical activity during leisure Conflicting evidence
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] Conflicted$
  Body mass index Conflicting evidence
  2 low risk of bias cohorts [41, 57] 3 cohorts [42, 56, 66] Positive, no No, no, positive
  Lower education level Conflicting evidence
  2 low risk of bias cohorts [41, 57] 2 cohorts [42, 66] No, negative Positive, no
Disease characteristics
 Faster or more progression
  Having another disease (comorbidity) Strong evidence for more progression
  2 low risk of bias cohorts [41, 57] 1 cohort [42] Positive$$, positive Positive
  Concurrent morning stiffness of the knee (< 30 min) Limited evidence for more progression
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] Positive
 No association
  Use of (pain) medication at baseline Strong evidence for no association
  2 low risk of bias cohorts [29, 41] No, no
  Quality of life at baseline Strong evidence for no association
  2 low risk of bias cohort [30, 41] No$$$, no
  Limited range of motion of internal hip rotation Strong evidence for no association
  2 low risk of bias cohorts [41, 57] 1 cohort [66] No, no No
  Limited range of motion of external hip rotation Strong evidence for no association
  2 low risk of bias cohorts [15, 57] No, no
  Concurrent knee pain Moderate evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] 1 cohort [66] No No
  Depression Moderate evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] 1 cohort [56] No No
  Way of coping Moderate evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] 1 cohort [30] No No
  Respiratory comorbidity Moderate evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] 1 cohort [56] No No
  Patient-rated health Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] No
  Cardiac comorbidity (cumulative illness rating scale 1, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Vascular comorbidity (cumulative illness rating scale 2, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Eye, ear, nose, throat, and larynx diseases (cumulative illness rating scale 4, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Upper gastrointestinal comorbidity (cumulative illness rating scale 5, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Lower gastrointestinal comorbidity (cumulative illness rating scale 6, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Hepatic comorbidity (cumulative illness rating scale 7, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Renal comorbidity (cumulative illness rating scale 8, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Other genitourinary comorbidities (cumulative illness rating scale 9, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Neurological comorbidity (cumulative illness rating scale 11, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Psychiatric comorbidity (cumulative illness rating scale 12, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Comorbidity of endocrine and metabolic diseases (cumulative illness rating scale 13, severity score ≥ 2) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Cognitive functioning Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [57] No
  Muscle strength hip abduction Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [57] No
  Pain during sitting or lying Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] No
  Joint stiffness (WOMAC) Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [15] No
  Use of additional supplements or vitamins Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [15] No
  Concurrent pain during flexion of ipsilateral knee Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [15] No
  Knee flexion Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Knee extension Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
  Strength of isometric knee extension Limited evidence for no association
  1 low risk of bias cohort [29] No
 Conflicting evidence
  Bilateral hip OA Conflicting evidence
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] 1 cohort [66] Positive, if equal symptoms No
  Pain at baseline (self-reported or during physical examination) Conflicting evidence
  3 low risk of bias cohorts [29, 41, 47] No, no, positive
  Longer duration of symptoms at baseline Conflicting evidence
  1 low risk of bias cohort [57] 2 cohorts [42, 66] No No, positive
  Morning stiffness Conflicting evidence
  1 low risk of bias cohort [41] 1 cohort [66] No Positive
  Limited range of motion of flexion of the hip Conflicting evidence
  2 low risk of bias cohorts [41, 57] 1 cohort [66] Positive, no No
Chemical or imaging markers
 Conflicting evidence
  Higher K-L grade at baseline Conflicting evidence
  1 low risk of bias cohort [12] 2 cohorts [42, 66] No No, positive
  1. $Patients who were 3–5 days/week physically active in their leisure time showed less progression than patients who were 0–2 days/week physically active in their leisure time. No difference was found between patients spending 6–7 days/week on physical activity and patients spending 0–2 days/week on physical activity
  2. $$≥ 3 more diseases compared to no comorbidities
  3. $$$Subscale of SF-36 vitality showed a positive association with WOMAC function score