Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of characteristics between alcohol drinker and non-drinker

From: Alcohol consumption as a predictor of the progression of spinal structural damage in axial spondyloarthritis: data from the Catholic Axial Spondyloarthritis COhort (CASCO)

  Total axSpA (N = 278) Non-drinker (N = 72) Alcohol drinker (N = 206) P
Age (years) 39.0 ± 11.1 39.8 ± 13.4 38.7 ± 10.3 0.516
Diagnosed age (years) 31.4 ± 11.5 32.9 ± 13.3 30.8 ± 10.7 0.227
Disease duration (years) 7.5 ± 6.2 6.8 ± 5.8 7.7 ± 6.3 0.292
Follow-up duration (months) 24.03 ± 1.55 24.11 ± 1.59 24.01 ± 1.54 0.601
Male (%) 214 (77.0%) 48 (66.7%) 166 (80.6%) 0.024
BMI (kg/m2) 24.0 ± 3.2 23.9 ± 3.5 24.0 ± 3.1 0.856
Obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) 95 (34.2%) 23 (31.9%) 72 (35.0%) 0.750
BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 9 (3.2%) 2 (2.8%) 7 (3.4%) 1.000
Current smoker (%) 75 (27.1%) 11 (15.3%) 64 (31.2%) 0.014
Alcohol consumption (unit/week)    12.6 ± 15.0  
Uveitis history (%) 125 (45.5%) 42 (59.2%) 83 (40.7%) 0.011
IBD history (%) 3 (1.1%) 1 (1.4%) 2 (1.0%) 1.000
Dactylitis history (%) 21 (7.6%) 6 (8.5%) 15 (7.4%) 0.968
Psoriasis history (%) 15 (5.5%) 3 (4.2%) 12 (5.9%) 0.821
BASDAI (0–10) 2.9 ± 1.9 3.1 ± 1.9 2.9 ± 1.9 0.281
ASDAS-ESR (0–10) 1.9 ± 0.9 2.0 ± 0.9 1.9 ± 0.9 0.274
ASDAS-CRP (0–10) 1.8 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 0.9 0.668
BASFI (0–10) 0.8 ± 1.2 1.0 ± 1.4 0.8 ± 1.2 0.400
PGA (0–10) 3.1 ± 2.2 3.3 ± 2.5 3.1 ± 2.1 0.570
Pain VAS (0–10) 2.8 ± 2.4 3.3 ± 2.5 2.7 ± 2.3 0.092
PhyGA (0–10) 2.4 ± 1.7 2.5 ± 1.9 2.3 ± 1.6 0.352
Peripheral arthritis (%) 21 (7.7%) 6 (8.7%) 15 (7.4%) 0.928
SPARCC Enthesitis index (0–16) 0.2 ± 0.7 0.2 ± 0.7 0.2 ± 0.8 0.569
EQ-5D-5L-TTO 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.074
EQ-VAS (0–100) 72.8 ± 17.6 71.7 ± 17.9 73.3 ± 17.5 0.510
ASAS health index (HI, 0–17) 3.3 ± 3.0 4.1 ± 3.6 3.0 ± 2.8 0.019
Environmental factor related to ASAS HI (0–9) 2.0 ± 1.5 2.3 ± 1.6 1.9 ± 1.4 0.058
Positive HLA-B27 (%) 248 (93.9%) 65 (95.6%) 183 (93.4%) 0.714
AS (satisfying mNY criteria, %) 199 (71.6%) 50 (69.4%) 149 (72.3%) 0.752
Mean grade of sacroiliitis 2.4 ± 1.1 2.3 ± 1.0 2.5 ± 1.1 0.217
Baseline mSASSS (0–72) 11.6 ± 16.1 11.2 ± 15.3 11.7 ± 16.4 0.796
Baseline syndemophyte count (0–24) 4.0 ± 5.7 3.8 ± 5.3 4.1 ± 5.9 0.717
mSASSS change for 2 years 2.4 ± 3.4 1.5 ± 2.8 2.7 ± 3.6 0.007
Syndemophyte change for 2 years 0.7 ± 1.3 0.4 ± 1.2 0.9 ± 1.3 0.003
Current medication
 NSAID (%) 197 (70.9%) 53 (73.6%) 144 (69.9%) 0.656
 ASAS NSAID index (0–100) 39.5 ± 36.1 40.9 ± 36.8 39.0 ± 35.9 0.702
 TNF-α inhibitor (%) 146 (52.5%) 40 (55.6%) 106 (51.5%) 0.644
 Sulfasalazine (%) 85 (30.6%) 17 (23.6%) 68 (33.0%) 0.180
 Methotrexate (%) 6 (2.2%) 2 (2.8%) 4 (1.9%) 1.000
 Bisphosphonate (%) 23 (8.3%) 7 (9.7%) 16 (7.8%) 0.787
 Vitamin D (%) 88 (31.7%) 26 (36.1%) 62 (30.1%) 0.425
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. ASAS Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society, ASDAS Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score, axSpA axial spondyloarthritis, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, EQ-5D EuroQol-5 dimensions, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HLA human leukocyte antigen, IBD inflammatory bowel disease, mNY modified New York, mSASSS modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, PGA patient’s global assessment, PhyGA physician’s global assessment, SPARCC Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada, TNF tumor necrosis factor, TTO time trade-off, VAS visual analog scale