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Table 1 Baseline demographics, clinical features and treatments in SLE with infections vs. NPSLE

From: Clinical features of central nervous system infections and experience in differential diagnosis from neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus in a cohort of 8491 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Items CNS infections (n = 95) NPSLE (n = 95) P value
Sex, female, n (%) 81 (85.3) 81 (85.3) 1.000
Age at SLE diagnosis, year, mean (SD) 31.0 (13.9) 30.8 (14.1) 0.897
Age at onset§, years, mean (SD) 34.6 (13.7) 32.3 (14.7) 0.276
SLE disease duration&, months, median (IQR) 21.0 (3.0–50.0) 1.0 (0–22.0) < 0.001
System involvement of SLE, n (%)
 Lupus nephritis 71 (74.7) 69 (72.6) 0.742
 NPSLE 26 (27.4) 95 (100) < 0.001
 Hematological 65 (68.4) 62 (65.3) 0.644
 Mucocutaneous 79 (83.2) 66 (69.5) < 0.05
 Musculoskeletal 51 (53.7) 52 (54.7) 0.884
 Cardiovascular 12 (12.6) 22 (23.2) 0.058
 Pulmonary 6 (6.3) 18 (18.9) < 0.05
Medical history*, n (%)
 Pulmonary tuberculosis 5 (5.3) 5 (5.3) 1.000
 Fungal infections 2 (2.1) 1 (1.1) 1.000
 Diabetes mellitus 9 (9.5) 4 (4.2) 0.151
 Herpes zoster infections 9 (9.5) 1 (1.1) < 0.01
Previous treatment*
 Pulse GCs, n (%) 35 (36.8) 7 (7.4) < 0.001
 Average daily prednisone dose (or equivalent) in recent 6 months, mg/day, mean (SD) 43.5 (44.2) 21.8 (37.5) < 0.001
 DMARDs in recent 6 months, n (%) 67 (70.5) 36 (37.9) < 0.001
 CTX/MMF in recent 1 year, n (%) 49 (51.6) 17 (17.9) < 0.001
Neuropsychiatric symptoms§, n (%)
 Fever 92 (96.8) 22 (23.2) < 0.001
 Headache 85 (89.5) 42 (44.2) < 0.001
 Seizure 24 (25.3) 35 (36.8) 0.085
 Psychosis 17 (17.9) 31 (32.6) < 0.05
 Cognitive dysfunction 17 (17.9) 32 (33.7) < 0.05
 Acute confusional state 49 (51.6) 19 (20.0) < 0.001
 Anxiety disorder 2 (2.1) 10 (10.5) < 0.05
CSF examination§
 Pressure ≥ 300 mmH2O, n (%) 47 (51.1) 9 (9.5) < 0.001
 WBCs, 106/L, mean (SD) 635 (1470) 3 (12) < 0.001
 PMN ratio, %, mean (SD) 45.6 (36.0) 0.5 (2.4) < 0.001
 Protein, g/L, mean (SD) 2.13 (3.78) 0.64 (0.65) < 0.001
 Glucose, mmol/L, mean (SD) 2.0 (1.3) 3.3 (0.9) < 0.001
Laboratory blood test at onset§
 WBCs, 106/L, mean (SD) 9084 (5898) 6497 (3508) < 0.001
 PMN ratio, %, mean (SD) 82.2 (10.3) 75.8 (11.9) < 0.001
 Lymphocytes, 106/L, mean (SD) 923 (771) 1032 (758) 0.354
 Hypocomplementemia, n (%) 41 (44.6) 72 (77.4) < 0.001
 IgG, g/L, mean (SD) 13.6 (7.6) 12.2 (7.4) 0.236
 ESR, mm/h, mean (SD) 54.8 (39.5) 48.2 (31.8) 0.215
SLEDAI-2K score, mean (SD) 7.5 (7.3) 18.4 (5.6) < 0.001
SLICC/ACR Damage Index, mean (SD) 1.03 (1.04) 1.01 (0.88) 0.151
Morality rate#, n (%) 26 (27.4) 13 (13.7) < 0.05
  1. Pulse GCs are defined as equal to or greater than 500 mg/day methylprednisolone infusion for consecutive 3~5 days; DMARDs, including cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, cyclosporin, tacrolimus, azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, leflunomide
  2. CNS central nervous system, GCs glucocorticoids, NPSLE neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus, DMARDs disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, CTX cyclophosphamide, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, WBCs white blood cells, PMN polymorphonuclear leukocyte, IgG immunoglobulin G, SLEDAI-2K systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000. SLICC/ACR Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology
  3. §Evaluated within 2 weeks of CNS infection or NPSLE onset
  4. &Disease duration from SLE diagnosis to CNS infections or NPSLE onset
  5. *Evaluated history before the diagnosis of CNS infection or NPSLE
  6. #Evaluated within 1 year of diagnosis of CNS infection or NPSLE
  7. Significant p values are shown in bold typeface