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Table 2 PS-weighted cause-specific Cox proportional hazard regression to estimate hazard ratio for renal function deterioration or improvement by baseline CKD stage using allopurinol as reference

From: Impact of urate-lowering drugs on the progression and recovery from chronic kidney disease among gout patients

  Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Renal function deterioration Renal function improvement
Entire cohort
Type of ULD
 Allopurinol Reference Reference
 Febuxostat 1.77 (0.85–1.76) 1.43 (1.26–1.62)*
 Uricosuric agents 1.37 (0.71–1.37) 1.00 (0.88–1.14)
eGFR ≥ 90
 Allopurinol Reference
 Febuxostat 1.97 (0.95–4.08)
 Uricosuric agents 0.91 (0.48–1.70)
eGFR 60–89
 Allopurinol Reference Reference
 Febuxostat 1.49 (0.74–3.02) 1.88 (1.44–2.45)*
 Uricosuric agents 1.15 (0.63–2.08) 1.33 (1.02–1.72)*
eGFR 30–59
 Allopurinol Reference Reference
 Febuxostat 0.96 (0.53–1.74) 1.12 (0.84–1.49)
 Uricosuric agents 0.93 (0.52–1.67) 0.95 (0.72–1.26)
eGFR 15–29
 Allopurinol Reference Reference
 Febuxostat 1.49 (0.43–5.15) 1.32 (0.80–2.20)
 Uricosuric agents 1.39 (0.40–4.82) 1.46 (0.88–2.42)
  1. * p < 0.05