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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the medium-dose treatment episodes

From: Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with rheumatic diseases receiving prolonged, non-high-dose steroids—clinical implication of primary prophylaxis using trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole

n = number of treatment episodes Overall (n = 1065) Control group (n = 1020) Prophylaxis group (n = 45) p a
Age (years), mean (SD) 43.4 (15.0) 43.2 (14.9) 47.4 (17.7) 0.072
Male sex, n (%) 296 (27.8) 281 (27.5) 15 (33.3) 0.397
Disease duration (years), mean (SD) 5.1 (4.5) 5.2 (4.5) 3.9 (5.0) 0.057
Underlying disease
 Systemic lupus erythematosus, n (%) 473 (44.4) 458 (44.9) 15 (33.3) 0.126
 Systemic sclerosis, n (%) 22 (2.1) 21 (2.1) 1 (2.2) 0.940
 Polymyositis, n (%) 57 (5.4) 55 (5.4) 2 (4.4) 0.782
 Dermatomyositis, n (%) 59 (5.5) 50 (4.9) 9 (20.0) < 0.001
 GPA, n (%) 6 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 6 (13.3) < 0.001
 MPA, n (%) 3 (0.3) 1 (0.1) 2 (4.4) < 0.001
 EGPA, n (%) 29 (2.7) 28 (2.7) 1 (2.2) 0.833
 Polyarteritis nodosa, n (%) 8 (0.8) 7 (0.7) 1 (2.2) 0.243
 Rheumatoid arthritis, n (%) 67 (6.3) 64 (6.3) 3 (6.7) 0.916
 Adult-onset Still’s disease, n (%) 28 (2.6) 27 (2.6) 1 (2.2) 0.862
 Behcet’s disease, n (%) 210 (19.7) 209 (20.5) 1 (2.2) 0.003
 Ankylosing spondylitis, n (%) 16 (1.5) 16 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 0.397
 Primary Sjogren’s syndrome, n (%) 14 (1.3) 13 (1.3) 1 (2.2) 0.585
 Relapsing polychondritis, n (%) 12 (1.1) 11 (1.1) 1 (2.2) 0.477
 Polymyalgia rheumatica, n (%) 21 (2.0) 21 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 0.331
 Giant-cell arteritis, n (%) 2 (0.2) 2 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0.766
 Takayasu’s arteritis, n (%) 28 (2.6) 28 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 0.260
 Others, n (%)b 10 (0.9) 9 (0.9) 1 (2.2) 0.362
Concomitant immunosuppressive treatment
 Steroid-pulse treatment, n (%) 54 (5.1) 42 (4.1) 12 (26.7) < 0.001
 Oral cyclophosphamide, n (%) 18 (1.7) 14 (1.4) 4 (8.9) < 0.001
 Cyclophosphamide pulse, n (%) 38 (3.6) 29 (2.8) 9 (20.0) < 0.001
 Azathioprine, n (%) 236 (22.2) 225 (22.1) 11 (24.4) 0.706
 Mycophenolate mofetil, n (%) 184 (17.3) 181 (17.7) 3 (6.7) 0.054
 Methotrexate, n (%) 169 (15.9) 167 (16.4) 2 (4.4) 0.032
 TNFi, n (%) 20 (1.9) 18 (1.8) 2 (4.4) 0.195
Cumulative steroid dose, mean (SD)c 681.3 (1306.0) 657.1 (1267.5) 1229.8 (1928.5) 0.055
Interstitial lung disease, n (%) 89 (8.4) 73 (7.1) 17 (37.8) < 0.001
Lymphopenia, n (%)d 131 (12.3) 123 (12.1) 8 (17.8) 0.253
  1. The baseline date was defined as the day on which PCP prophylaxis (prophylaxis group) or medium-dose steroid (control group) was started
  2. GPA granulomatosis with polyangiitis, MPA microscopic polyangiitis, EGPA eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, SD standard deviation, TNFi tumor necrosis factor inhibitor
  3. ap values for comparison of parameters between the control group and the prophylaxis group
  4. bIncluding mixed connective tissue disease, IgG4-related disease and hypersensitivity vasculitis
  5. cCumulative steroid (prednisone) dose during the previous 6 months
  6. dDefined as < 800 lymphocytes per microliter