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Table 3 Effect of TMP-SMX prophylaxis on 1-year PCP incidence stratified according to the presence of risk factors

From: Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with rheumatic diseases receiving prolonged, non-high-dose steroids—clinical implication of primary prophylaxis using trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole

  Whole population (n = 1065) High-risk subgroupa (n = 173)
Hazard ratio (95% profile likelihood CI) Hazard ratio (95% profile likelihood CI)
Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisb Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisc
TMP-SMX prophylaxis 2.03 (0.02–17.95) 0.51 (0.004–5.30) 0.76 (0.006–6.74) 0.18 (0.001–2.31)
p value for hazard ratio 0.661 0.627 0.850 0.216
  1. CI confidence interval, PCP pneumocystis pneumonia, TMP-SMX trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole
  2. aDefined as treatment episodes with baseline lymphopenia and/or concomitant steroid-pulse treatment
  3. bIncluded concomitant steroid pulse and cyclophosphamide, higher previously used steroid (≥ 800 mg of prednisone or equivalent during previous 6 months) and lymphopenia as covariates, and was also adjusted for clustering
  4. cIncluded old age (≥ 70 years) and concomitant steroid-pulse treatment as covariates and was also adjusted for clustering