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Table 2 Factors related to the use of tramadol or stronger opioids compared with non-use in knee OA patients

From: Factors related to the use of opioids as early treatment in patients with knee osteoarthritis

Variables Tramadol (OR, 95% CI) Stronger opioids (OR, 95% CI)
Year
 2013 (reference) 1 1
 2014 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.40 (1.26–1.56)
 2015 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 1.14 (1.02–1.28)
Age
 50–59 (reference) 1 1
 60–69 0.97 (0.96–0.98) 0.99 (0.87–1.12)
 ≥ 70 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 1.45 (1.29–1.63)
Sex
 Female (reference) 1 1
 Male 1.28 (1.27–1.29) 1.13 (1.03–1.24)
Health insurance
 Medical aid/veterans (reference) 1 1
 National insurance 0.94 (0.93–0.96) 0.73 (0.64–0.83)
Type of institution
 Hospital/clinic (reference) 1 1
 Tertiary hospital 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 59.63 (52.27–68.04)
 General hospital 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 21.19 (18.90–23.75)
 Others 0.12 (0.12–0.13) 0.06 (0.02–0.13)
Type of department
 Internal medicine (reference) 1 1
 Orthopedics 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.46 (0.41–0.52)
 Rehabilitation 0.81 (0.79–0.84) 0.30 (0.23–0.40)
 Others 0.95 (0.94–0.97) 0.87 (0.76–1.01)
Myocardial infarction 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 1.12 (0.84–1.51)
Congestive heart failure 1.01 (1.00–1.03) 1.08 (0.93–1.26)
Peripheral vascular disease 1.04 (1.03–1.05) 1.07 (0.95–1.20)
Dementia 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 1.24 (1.07–1.43)
Chronic pulmonary disease 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.16 (1.06–1.28)
Peptic ulcer disease 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 1.09 (0.99–1.20)
Diabetes 0.97 (0.96–0.98) 1.21 (1.10–1.33)
Any malignancy 0.87 (0.85–0.88) 2.91 (2.60–3.25)
Alcohol abuse 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 1.39 (1.10–1.75)
Depression 1.05 (1.04–1.06) 1.46 (1.31–1.62)
Low back pain 1.13 (1.12–1.13) 1.30 (1.18–1.43)
Intervertebral disc disorder 1.11 (1.10–1.12) 1.40 (1.26–1.56)
Spinal stenosis 1.27 (1.26–1.28) 1.55 (1.40–1.72)
Fibromyalgia 1.13 (1.10–1.16) 0.93 (0.69–1.26)
  1. OA osteoarthritis, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval