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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcome measures

From: The impact of sex and disease classification on patient-reported outcome measures in axial spondyloarthritis: a descriptive prospective cross-sectional study

  r-axSpA n = 40 Nr-axSpA n = 60 P P (Sex) P (AxSpA) P (AxSpA*Sex)
Male (n = 30) Female (n = 10) Male (n = 25) Female (n = 35)
Demographics
 Age, years, median [Q1; Q3] 48 [41; 55] 46 [38; 62] 40 [29; 51] 48 [36; 52] 0.18a 0.39 0.04 0.67
 BMI, kg/m2, median [Q1; Q3] 25.7 [23.2; 30.9] 22.7 [20.6; 24.8] 28.1 [23.3; 30.2] 24.5 [23.3; 28.8] 0.02a 0.002 0.12 0.21
 Smoking (current), n (%) 8 (27) 0 (0) 11 (44) 12 (34) 0.06b 0.73 0.29 0.85
 Symptom duration, month, median [Q1; Q3] 233 [132; 384] 192 [132; 336] 78 [60; 120] 90 [48; 152] < 0.001a 0.84 < 0.001 0.79
 Peripheral joint involvement, n (%) 17 (57) 7 (70) 12 (48) 17 (49) 0.62b 0.73 0.29 0.85
Medication
 NSAIDs daily use, n (%) 12 (40) 5 (50) 13 (52) 17 (49) 0.82b 0.79 0.94 0.55
 MTX use, n (%) 2 (7) 4 (40) 3 (12) 11 (31) 0.02b 0.09 0.61 0.40
 MTX dose (mg/week),median [Q1; Q3] 0.0 [0.0; 10.0] 0.0 [0.0; 20.0] 0.0 [0.0; 0.0] 0.0 [0.0; 10.0] 0.005a < 0.001 0.32 0.31
 Sulfasalazine use, n (%) 1 (3) 1 (10) 1 (4) 4 (11) 0.48b 0.33 0.90 0.98
 No. of previous bDMARD used, median [Q1; Q3] 0.0 [0.0; 1.0] 0.0 [0.0; 1.0] 0.0 [0.0; 1.0] 0.0 [0.0; 1.0] 0.94a 0.89 0.93 0.38
 Current bDMARD, n (%) 15 (50) 3 (30) 12 (48) 10 (29) 0.25b 0.13 0.93 0.99
 Glucocorticoid use, n (%) 0 (0) 1 (10) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.10b 0.02 0.02 0.21
 Glucocorticoid use (mg/day), median [Q1; Q3] 0.0 [0.0; 0.0] 0.0 [0.0; 0.0] 0.0 [0.0; 0.0] 0.0 [0.0; 0.0] 0.03a 0.02 0.02 0.02
Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs)
 BASDAI (0–100), median [Q1; Q3] 25 [13; 45] 25 [16; 35] 25 [10; 52] 47 [21; 60] 0.07a 0.30 0.11 0.29
 BASFI (0–100), median [Q1; Q3] 18 [7; 40] 19.0 [3; 49] 16 [7; 48] 36 [16; 51] 0.37a 0.47 0.34 0.57
 SF-36: PCS (0–100), median [Q1; Q3] 43.3 [37.0; 52.0] 51.3 [45.4; 54.5] 43.8 [37.1; 50.4] 43.4 [34.4; 46.7] 0.22a 0.83 0.29 0.10
 SF-36: MCS (0–100), median [Q1; Q3] 56.9 [50.1; 59.3] 50.4 [38.7; 60.4] 52.3 [39.1; 55.4] 46.7 [42.4; 52.2] 0.005a 0.09 0.03 0.21
 VAS pain (0–100 mm), median [Q1; Q3] 24 [12; 43] 17 [12; 36] 25 [13; 47] 49 [20; 61] 0.10a 0.79 0.06 0.57
 VAS fatigue (0–100 mm), median [Q1; Q3] 22 [12; 45] 39 [16; 54] 33 [12; 67] 54 [20; 61] 0.02a 0.08 0.16 0.38
 VAS global (0–100 mm), median [Q1; Q3] 26 [14; 45] 19 [12; 57] 20 [12; 57] 53 [22; 69] 0.25a 0.39 0.30 0.41
Clinical examination
 Tender point count (0–18), median [Q1; Q3] 0 [0; 2] 4 [0; 6] 0 [0; 4] 5 [2; 8] < 0.001a < 0.001 0.28 0.24
 Swollen joint count (0–44), median [Q1; Q3] 0 [0; 0] 0 [0; 0] 0 [0; 0] 0 [0; 0] 0.67a 0.89 0.32 0.23
 Tender joint count (0–44), median [Q1; Q3] 0 [0; 2] 2 [0; 4] 0 [0; 2] 2 [1; 4] 0.02a 0.07 0.67 0.74
 BASMI (0–100), median [Q1; Q3] 20 [10; 40] 10 [0; 30] 10 [10; 20] 10 [0; 20] 0.006a 0.12 0.02 0.30
 SPARCC, EI (0–16), median [Q1; Q3] 0 [0; 2] 0 [0; 2] 1 [0; 2] 1 [0; 1] 0.05a 0.33 0.09 0.33
 ASDAS-CRP, median [Q1; Q3] 2.0 [1.3; 3.1] 1.95 [1.3; 3.2] 2.1 [1.5; 3.1] 2.6 [1.4; 3.1] 0.95a 0.76 0.88 0.98
 VAS physician (0–100), median [Q1; Q3] 11 [5; 21] 11 [9; 16] 10 [2.0; 17.0] 5 [2; 13] 0.63a 0.24 0.42 0.57
Extra-articular manifestations*
 Uveitis, n (%) 12 (40) 3 (30) 3 (12) 7 (20) 0.09b 0.42 0.51 0.33
 Inflammatory bowel disease, n (%) 3 (10) 0 (0) 3 (12) 6 (17) 0.63b 0.58 0.81 0.58
 Psoriasis, n (%) 12 (40) 2 (20) 11 (44) 14 (40) 0.64b 0.76 0.26 0.42
 Dactylitis, n (%) 6 (20) 3 (30) 6 (24) 11 (31) 0.75b 0.53 0.93 0.87
 Acilles enthesitis, n (%) 13 (43) 5 (50) 3 (12) 10 (29) 0.03b 0.14 0.21 0.43
 Nephrolithiasis, n (%) 6 (20) 0 (0) 3 (12) 4 (11) 0.50b 0.95 0.43 0.49
Comorbidities
 Charlson Comorbidity Index, median [Q1; Q3] 1 [0; 1] 0 [0; 0] 1 [0; 1] 1 [0; 1] 0.14a 0.03 0.83 0.52
Paraclinical assessment
 HLA-B27 positive, n (%) 27 (90) 9 (90) 15 (60) 19 (54) 0.004b 0.66 0.06 0.86
 CRP (mg/L), median [Q1; Q3] 4.7 [1.1; 10.0] 4.25 [1.1; 21] 2.1 [0.9; 6.8] 1.9 [0.6; 4.4] 0.13a 0.49 0.02 0.58
 P-calprotectin (ng/mL), median [Q1; Q3]†† 219 [145; 350] 144 [120; 405] 237 [137; 375] 195 [104; 288] 0.48a 0.14 0.66 0.77
 F-calprotectin (mg/kg), median [Q1; Q3]††† 15 [10; 42] 16 [14; 27] 14 [7; 34] 19 [11; 55] 0.64a 0.79 0.91 0.24
  1. Data are presented as median, 25th percentile (Q1) and 75th percentile (Q3), and percentages
  2. BMI body mass index, NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, MTX methotrexate, bDMARD biologic disease-modifying drugs, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, VAS Visual Analog Scale, SF-36: MCS/PCS Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Mental/Physical Component Summary, BASMI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, SPARCC Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada, EI Enthesitis Index, ASDAS-CRP Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein
  3. aKruskal-Wallis H test
  4. bFisher’s exact test
  5. *Either patient history or current diagnosis, P/F-calprotectin, plasma/fecal calprotectin
  6. n = 98 (r-axSpA male n = 29, r-axSpA female n = 10, nr-axSpA male n = 25, nr-axSpA female n = 34)
  7. ††n = 96 (r-axSpA male n = 28, r-axSpA female n = 10, nr-axSpA male n = 24, nr-axSpA female n = 34)
  8. †††n = 72 (r-axSpA male n = 21, r-axSpA female n = 9, nr-axSpA male n = 16, nr-axSpA female n = 26)