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Table 5 Efficacy of anti-IL agents (anakinra, canakinumab, and rilonacept) in refractory patients with AOSD: data from retrospective observational studies, nationwide survey, and clinical trials

From: Management of adult-onset Still’s disease with interleukin-1 inhibitors: evidence- and consensus-based statements by a panel of Italian experts

ReferenceDesignStudy drugMean follow-up (months)NumberEffective (%)Remission (%)Failure (%)
Naumann et al. [62]ROAnakinra26.8810087.50
Laskari et al. [63]ROAnakinra122596844
Riera et al. [64]ROAnakinra112.8551001000
Quartuccio et al. [65]ROAnakinra221090NA10
Iliou et al. [67]ROAnakinraNA10100NA0
Gerfaud-Valentine et al. [68]ROAnakinra27.8683.383.316.6
Maria et al. [6]ROAnakinra245100800
Maria et al. [6]ROCanakinumab3011001000
Cavalli et al. [70]ROAnakinra6020807020
Palmou et al. (abstract) [72]ROAnakinra15.54173NA26.8
Lenert and Yao [35]ROAnakinraNA5100NA0
Toz et al. (abstract) [75]ROAnakinraNA7NA61NA
Colafrancesco et al. [76]ROAnakinra1214081.414.218.5
Colafrancesco et al. [76]ROCanakinumab12475NA25
Neel et al. [78]ROAnakinraNA580NA20
Lequerre et al. [60]Nationwide surveyAnakinra14.31586.673.313.3
Giampietro et al. [66]Nationwide surveyAnakinra23285742.821.4
Rossi-Semerano et al. [73]Nationwide surveyAnakinraNA356055.840
Rossi-Semerano et al. [73]Nationwide surveyCanakinumabNA2505050
Ortiz-Sanjuan et al. [71]Nationwide surveyAnakinra124182.9NA17
Nordstrom et al. [18]Clinical trial (RCT)Anakinra61291.6508.3
Henderson et al. (abstract) [61]Clinical trial (POL dose escalation)Rilonacept24560NA40
Feist et al. [33]Clinical trial (post hoc analysis)Canakinumab32983.322.216.7
Median global evaluation    83.37016.65
  1. abs conference abstract, AOSD adult-onset Still’s disease, NA not available, POL prospective open-label, RCT randomized controlled trial, RO retrospective observational