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Table 2 Correlation of serum biomarkers and SLE disease activity

From: Performance of cytokine models in predicting SLE activity

BiomarkerActive (n = 51) [median (range)]Inactive (n = 73) [median (range)]p valueARp valueB
C3, g/l0.84 (0.18–1.80)0.95 (0.52–1.63)0.080−0.406< 0.001***
C4, g/l0.17 (0.01–0.69)0.22 (0.03–0.47)0.528−0.2031.000
Anti-dsDNA, IU/ml64.30 (10.0–800.0)24.75 (10.0–800.0)0.3520.2231.000
IL-1β, pg/ml1.39 (1.10–33.97)1.39 (1.25–1.39)1.0000.1261.000
IFN-α, pg/ml8.51 (1.48–449.29)1.54 (1.48–89.25)0.2720.3740.002**
IFN-γ, pg/ml1.52 (1.52–966.81)1.58 (1.52–47.24)1.0000.1260.223
TNF-α, pg/ml2.22 (1.90–11.34)2.22 (1.22–56.74)1.000−0.0471.000
MCP-1, pg/ml1111.96 (330.92–20,499.66)609.42 (4.54–14,597.43)0.016*0.2111.000
IL-6, pg/ml22.73 (1.27–608.74)1.87 (1.00–155.65)< 0.001***0.450< 0.001***
IL-8, pg/ml70.77 (1.28–840.89)16.78 (1.13–220.54)< 0.001***0.541< 0.001***
IL-10, pg/ml8.96 (1.22–482.23)1.42 (1.22–49.32)1.0000.1030.101
IL-12, pg/ml1.06 (1.06–10.61)1.06 (1.06–4.52)1.0000.1081.000
IL-17, pg/ml6.34 (1.18–61.96)1.47 (1.00–432.93)1.0000.0621.000
IL-18, pg/ml177.87 (1.14–2526.77)7.36 (1.14–1288.23)< 0.001***0.462< 0.001***
IL-23, pg/ml2.52 (2.03–88.94)2.52 (2.03–76.62)1.0000.0461.000
IL-33, pg/ml1.66 (0.88–32.29)1.66 (1.01–2.19)1.000−0.0091.000
  1. A = Mann-Whitney U test, R = correlation coefficient, B = Pearson’s correlation; *p <  0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (Bonferroni correction)