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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Circulating calprotectin (S100A8/A9) is higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients that relapse within 12 months of tapering anti-rheumatic drugs

 IMPROVED (N = 104)RETRO (N = 57)
Age, mean years (SD)49 (13)55 (13)
Female, n (%)67 (64%)37 (65%)
BMI, mean (SD)25 (4)25 (4)
Ever smoker, n (%)47 (46%)18 (32%)
Disease duration, median (IQR)19 (9–36) weeks^5 (3–10) years
Anti-CCP2 IgG positive, n (%)85 (83%)34 (62%)
RF IgM positive, n (%)79 (79%)39 (68%)
Current DMARD use
 Methotrexate104 (100%)47 (82%)
 Glucocorticoids0 (0%)11 (19%)
 Other csDMARDS0 (0%)6 (11%)
 Biological DMARDs0 (0%)21 (37%)
 Etanercept5 (9%)
 Adalimumab6 (11%)
 Tocilizumab5 (9%)
 Golimumab2 (4%)
 Certolizumab3 (5%)
DAS44 at tapering/stopping moment, mean (SD)0.9 (0.4)
DAS28-ESR at tapering/stopping moment, mean (SD)1.8 (0.7)
Disease flare within 12 months78 (75%)26 (46%)
Calprotectin (ng/mL), median (IQR)1000 (230–2422)1000 (650–2000)
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, Anti-CCP2 anti-citrullinated protein 2 antibody, RF rheumatoid factor, cs/bDMARD conventional synthetic/biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, DAS disease activity score, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  2. ^Disease duration is based on the moment of study inclusion; in the IMPROVED study, this excludes the first 4 months of treatment
  3. Categories are not mutually exclusive
  4. Patients received sulfasalazine (n = 2), hydroxychloroquine (n = 2), leflunomide (n = 1), or azathioprine (n = 1)