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Table 3 Risk factors associated with gastrointestinal bleeding among all the enrollees by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses

From: High risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with systemic sclerosis

VariablesUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysisa
HR95% CIpHR95% CIp
All gastrointestinal bleeding3.732.83–4.92< 0.0012.982.21–4.02< 0.001
 Upper gastrointestinal bleeding3.502.48–4.94< 0.0012.801.92–4.08< 0.001
  Peptic ulcer bleeding3.032.03–4.53< 0.0012.521.64–3.88< 0.001
  Non-peptic ulcer bleeding4.793.16–7.27< 0.0013.572.27–5.61< 0.001
 Lower gastrointestinal bleeding5.143.40–7.77< 0.0013.932.52–6.13< 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aEach variable was adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, concomitant medications, competing mortality, and time-dependent covariate