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Table 6 Determinants of above-median annual total healthcare cost and its components in SSc-DU in multivariable logistic regression

From: Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: their epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and associated clinical and economic burden

 OR (95%CI)p value
Determinants of annual total healthcare cost
 Female1.21 (0.7–2.1)0.48
 Age at SSc onset*, years1.03 (1.0–1.1)< 0.001
 Caucasian ethnicity0.55 (0.2–1.6)0.27
 Diffuse subtype0.71 (0.4–1.2)0.19
 ILD1.38 (0.9–2.2)0.16
 PAH#1.78 (0.9–3.2)0.05
 PDE-5-inhibitor1.0 (0.6–1.8)0.99
Iloprost1.77 (1.1–2.8)0.02
Determinants of hospital cost
 Female1.20 (0.7–2.1)0.49
 Caucasian ethnicity0.83 (0.3–2.3)0.72
 Age at SSc onset*, years1.03 (1.0–1.1)0.001
 Diffuse subtype0.97 (0.6–1.6)0.91
 PAH#1.32 (0.7–2.3)0.35
 ILD1.27 (0.8–1.9)0.29
 Iloprost1.59 (1.0–2.5)0.04
 PDE5 inhibitor1.13 (0.6–1.9)0.68
Determinants of ED cost
 Female1.29 (0.7–2.3)0.39
 Caucasian ethnicity0.96 (0.3–2.8)0.94
 Age at SSc onset*, years1.02 (0.9–1.0)0.06
 Diffuse subtype0.79 (0.5–1.3)0.37
 PAH#2.89 (1.4–5.9)0.004
 ILD1.29 (0.8–2.1)0.33
Determinants of MBS cost
 Female1.79 (1.0–3.2)0.05
 Age at SSc onset*, years1.02 (1.0–1.1)0.001
 Caucasian ethnicity0.82 (0.3–2.5)0.001
 Diffuse subtype0.68 (0.4–1.1)0.10
 PAH#2.41 (1.3–4.5)0.001
DU severity**
 MildBaseline 
 Moderate1.05 (0.6–1.9)0.88
 Severe0.71 (0.3–1.6)0.39
CVA3.35 (1.1–10.4)0.04
Diabetes mellitus1.51 (0.6–3.8)0.39
  1. Abbreviations: DU digital ulceration, PAH pulmonary arterial hypertension, ILD interstitial lung disease, CVA cerebrovascular accident, CCB calcium channel blockers, ERAs endothelial receptor antagonists, PDE5 phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors
  2. *SSc onset defined as the first symptom of SSc (Raynaud phenomenon or other) *disease duration defined as from first non-Raynaud’s disease manifestation
  3. **DU severity was calculated based on the physician reported highest number of new DUs on examination at clinical review (mild 1–5 new DU, moderate 6–10, and severe > 10 new DU)
  4. #PAH diagnosed on right heart catheterization (RHC) according to international criteria [11]