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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of patients with and without the event of poor treatment outcomes

From: Associated factors of poor treatment outcomes in patients with giant cell arteritis: clinical implication of large vessel lesions

  With the eventa (n = 41) Without the eventb (n = 78) p
Age, years, mean ± SD 72.6 ± 8.3 73.3 ± 7.3 0.622
Female patients, % 73.2 64.1 0.317
Weight, kg, mean ± SD 49.4 ± 9.2 52.5 ± 11.1 0.128
Signs and symptoms of cranial lesions at baseline, % 65.9 83.3 0.03
 Headache, % 51.2 64.1 0.173
 Abnormal temporal artery, % 51.2 64.1 0.173
 Jaw claudication, % 36.6 32.1 0.619
 Visual disturbance, % 19.5 25.6 0.454
LVLs detected by imaging at baseline, % 78.0 46.2 0.001
 Any lesions of the aortic branchesc, % 48.8 37.2 0.222
 Any lesions of the aortad, % 53.7 30.8 0.015
 Any structural vascular damagee, % 31.7 19.2 0.127
 Stenosis of the aortic branchesc, % 12.2 15.4 0.637
 Aneurysm of the aorta, % 9.8 2.6 0.106
Fever at baseline, % 24.4 36.8 0.170
Polymyalgia rheumatica at baseline, % 43.9 41.0 0.763
CRP at baseline, mg/dl, median (interquartile range) 7.15 (3.75–11.1) 6.82 (2.99–11.2) 0.810
Ischemic heart disease at baseline, % 2.4 7.7 0.235
Cerebrovascular disease at baseline, % 17.1 11.5 0.400
Hypertension at baseline, % 39.0 44.9 0.540
Diabetes mellitus at baseline, % 19.5 17.9 0.835
Hyperlipidemia at baseline, % 22.0 29.5 0.378
Initial dose of PSL, mg/kg/day, mean ± SD 0.76 ± 0.26 0.75 ± 0.22 0.799
PSL dose at week 4, mg/kg/day, mean ± SD 0.57 ± 0.20 0.56 ± 0.16 0.652
PSL dose at week 8, mg/kg/day, mean ± SD 0.42 ± 0.16 0.41 ± 0.14 0.774
PSL dose at week 12, mg/kg/day, mean ± SD 0.36 ± 0.15 0.34 ± 0.11 0.364
Immunosuppressive drug use at baseline, % 15.0 9.0 0.245
Immunosuppressive drug use during observational period, % 75.6 28.2 < 0.001
 MTX for induction therapy, n (%) 11 (26.8) 9 (11.5)
 MTX for flare, % 12 (29.3)
 CY for induction therapy, % 2 (4.9) 2 (2.6)
 CY for flare, % 3 (7.3)
 AZA for induction therapy, % 7 (17.1) 4 (5.1)
 AZA for flare, % 2 (4.9)
  1. LVLs large vessel lesions, LV large vessel, ACR American College of Rheumatology, CRP C-reactive protein, PSL prednisolone, GCs glucocorticoids, MTX methotrexate, CY cyclophosphamide, AZA azathioprine
  2. aPoor treatment outcomes were defined as non-achievement of clinical remission by week 24 or relapse after the achievement of clinical remission during 52 weeks
  3. bPatients without the event of poor treatment outcomes achieved clinical remission by week 24 and no relapse during 52 weeks.
  4. cAny lesions of aortic branches by imaging included lesions in the carotid, vertebral, brachiocephalic, subclavian, axillary artery, pulmonary, renal, or iliac arteries
  5. dAny lesions of the aorta by imaging included lesions in the ascending aorta, aorta arch, descending thoracic aorta, or abdominal aorta
  6. eAny structural vascular damage included stenosis, dilatation, or aneurysm in lesions of the aortic branches and aorta