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Table 4 Associated factors with poor treatment outcomes during 52 weeks

From: Associated factors of poor treatment outcomes in patients with giant cell arteritis: clinical implication of large vessel lesions

  Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisa
HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p
Age, per 1 year increment 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 0.836 1.02 (0.97–1.08) 0.388
Female 1.44 (0.72–2.88) 0.396 1.28 (0.63–2.62) 0.492
Any cranial symptoms at baseline 0.50 (0.26–0.95) 0.034 0.83 (0.40–1.72) 0.622
Polymyalgia rheumatica at baseline 1.13 (0.61–2.09) 0.699 1.30 (0.63–2.62) 0.492
LVLs at baseline 3.20 (1.53–6.72) 0.002 3.54 (1.52–8.24) 0.003
 Any lesions of the aortic branchesb 1.44 (0.78–2.66) 0.240   
 Any lesions of the aortac 2.07 (1.12–3.82) 0.02   
 Any structural vascular damaged 1.73 (0.90–3.35) 0.102   
 Aneurysm of the aorta 2.76 (0.98–7.78) 0.054   
CRP at baseline per 1 mg/dl increment 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.930   
Initial dose of PSL per 0.1 mg/kg/day increment 1.01 (0.88–1.17) 0.874   
Dose of PSL at week 4 per 0.1 mg/kg/day increment 1.04 (0.86–1.25) 0.685   
Dose of PSL at week 8 per 0.1 mg/kg/day increment 1.03 (0.83–1.29) 0.785   
Dose of PSL at week 12 per 0.1 mg/kg/day increment 1.13 (0.87–1.46) 0.356   
Immunosuppressive drug use at baseline 1.54 (0.65–3.67) 0.330   
  1. Poor treatment outcomes were defined as non-achievement of clinical remission by week 24 or relapse after the achievement of clinical remission during 52 weeks
  2. LVLs large vessel lesions, CRP C-reactive protein, PSL prednisolone
  3. aAge, sex, any cranial symptoms, and polymyalgia rheumatica were selected as covariates of interest
  4. bAny lesions of the aortic branches by imaging included lesions in the carotid, vertebral, brachiocephalic, subclavian, axillary artery, pulmonary renal, or iliac arteries
  5. cAny lesions of the aorta by imaging included lesions in the ascending aorta, aorta arch, descending thoracic aorta, or abdominal aorta
  6. dAny structural vascular damage included stenosis, dilatation, or aneurysm in lesions of the aortic branches and aorta