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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of REGARDS study participants included in the current analysis

From: Gout is associated with an increased risk for incident heart failure among older adults: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study

Baseline characteristicsParticipants without gout (n = 5526)Participants with gout (n = 187)p value
Age, years, mean (SD)72.5 (5.6)73.8 (6.1)0.003
Black, n (%)1711 (31.0)83 (44.4)< 0.001
Men, n (%)2440 (44.2)123 (65.8)< 0.001
Region of residence, n (%)*
 Stroke belt1995 (36.1)61 (32.6) 
 Stroke buckle1258 (22.8)50 (26.7)0.39
 Other US regions2273 (41.1)76 (40.6) 
< $25,000 annual income, n (%)1790 (34.4)57 (32.0)0.51
Less than high school education, n (%)727 (13.2)38 (20.3)0.005
Alcohol consumption, n (%)
 None3527 (65.1)117 (63.9) 
 Moderate1669 (30.8)59 (32.2)0.90
 Heavy225 (4.2)7 (3.8) 
Current smoking, n (%)485 (8.8)12 (6.5)0.26
Body mass index, n (%)
 < 25 kg/m21749 (31.8)27 (14.6) 
 25 to < 30 kg/m22182 (39.7)67 (36.2)< 0.001
 ≥ 30 kg/m21572 (28.6)91 (49.2) 
Low physical activity, n (%)1794 (33.1)74 (40.7)0.03
Dietary patterns
 Convenience   
  0 to < 25 percentile (least adherent)1080 (25.2)25 (19.4) 
  25 to < 50 percentile1074 (25.0)31 (24.0)0.19
  50 to < 75 percentile1074 (25.0)31 (24.0) 
  75 to 100 percentile (most adherent)1063 (24.8)42 (32.6) 
 Plant-based   
  0 to < 25 percentile (least adherent)1070 (24.9)35 (27.1) 
  25 to < 50 percentile1066 (24.8)39 (30.2)0.22
  50 to < 75 percentile1073 (25.0)32 (24.8) 
  75 to 100 percentile (most adherent)1082 (25.2)23 (17.8) 
 Sweets   
  0 to < 25 percentile (least adherent)1062 (24.7)43 (33.3) 
  25 to < 50 percentile1080 (25.2)25 (19.4)0.13
 50 to < 75 percentile1076 (25.1)29 (22.5) 
  75 to 100 percentile (most adherent)1073 (25.0)32 (24.8) 
 Southern   
  0 to < 25 percentile (least adherent)1088 (25.4)17 (13.2) 
  25 to < 50 percentile1082 (25.2)23 (17.8)< 0.001
  50 to < 75 percentile1068 (24.9)37 (28.7) 
  75 to 100 percentile (most adherent)1053 (24.5)52 (40.3) 
 Alcohol and salads   
  0 to < 25 percentile (least adherent)1072 (25.0)33 (25.6) 
  25 to < 50 percentile1073 (25.0)32 (24.8)0.79
  50 to < 75 percentile1077 (25.1)28 (21.7) 
  75 to 100 percentile (most adherent)1069 (24.9)36 (27.9) 
Diabetes, n (%)903 (16.9)52 (29.4)< 0.001
Chronic kidney disease, n (%)1266 (23.1)85 (45.9)< 0.001
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)384 (7.1)15 (8.3)0.55
SBP, mm Hg, mean (SD)129.5 (16.4)132.6 (15.4)0.01
Total cholesterol, mg/dL, mean (SD)193.2 (38.2)182.5 (39.5)< 0.001
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL, mean (SD)53.6 (16.6)46.7 (17.2)< 0.001
C-reactive protein > 3 mg/dL, n (%)1862 (35.7)94 (54.7)< 0.001
Medication use, n (%)
 Antihypertensive medication2764 (50.7)132 (70.6)< 0.001
 Diuretics1480 (26.8)57 (30.5)0.26
 Statin1590 (28.8)55 (29.4)0.85
 Aspirin2476 (44.8)82 (43.9)0.79
 COX-2-selective NSAIDs423 (7.7)22 (11.8)0.04
 Non-COX-2-selective NSAIDs828 (15.0)30 (16.0)0.69
 Antigout medications   
  Allopurinol46 (0.8)63 (33.7)< 0.001
  Colchicine17 (0.3)15 (8.0)< 0.001
  Probenecid2 (0.0)3 (1.6)< 0.001
  1. Definitions for baseline characteristics included in the analysis are provided in Supplemental Table 2
  2. COX cyclooxygenase, HDL high-density lipoprotein, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, REGARDS REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke, SBP systolic blood pressure, SD standard deviation, US United States
  3. *Stroke buckle includes coastal North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Stroke belt includes the remaining parts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Other US regions include the remaining 40 contiguous US states and the District of Columbia
  4. Low physical activity is defined by self-reporting not engaging in any weekly activity intense enough to work up a sweat
  5. The use of febuxostat was not analyzed at baseline in the REGARDS study as this medication was not approved until 2009 [9]