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Table 3 Risk for heart failure hospitalization with reduced and preserved LVEF among REGARDS study participants

From: Gout is associated with an increased risk for incident heart failure among older adults: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study

 Participants without gout (n = 5526)Participants with gout (n = 187)p value
HF hospitalization with reduced LVEF
 Events/person-years92/50,1638/1522 
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*1.8 (1.5, 2.2)5.3 (1.6, 8.9) 
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)2.41 (1.16, 5.01)0.02
  Model 21 (reference)2.49 (1.20, 5.17)0.01
  Model 31 (reference)2.17 (1.03, 4.59)0.04
  Model 41 (reference)1.77 (0.83, 3.79)0.14
HF hospitalization with preserved LVEF
 Events/person-years99/50,1639/1522 
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*2.0 (1.6, 2.4)5.9 (2.1, 9.8) 
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)2.93 (1.46, 5.85)< 0.001
  Model 21 (reference)2.85 (1.42, 5.70)< 0.001
  Model 31 (reference)2.56 (1.25, 5.22)0.01
  Model 41 (reference)2.32 (1.12, 4.79)0.02
  1. Model 1 adjusts for age, race, and gender
  2. Model 2 adjusts for age, race, gender, region of residence, income, and education
  3. Model 3 adjusts for variables in model 2 plus alcohol consumption, current smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and dietary patterns
  4. Model 4 adjusts for variables in model 3 plus diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and use of antihypertensive medication, diuretics, statin, aspirin, and cyclooxygenase-2-selective and non-cyclooxygenase-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  5. The LVEF could not be determined for 35 incident heart failure hospitalizations
  6. CI confidence interval, HF heart failure, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, REGARDS REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke
  7. *Per 1000 person-years