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Table 4 Risk for heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke hospitalization and all-cause mortality among Medicare beneficiaries

From: Gout is associated with an increased risk for incident heart failure among older adults: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study

 Medicare beneficiaries without gout (n = 809,306)Medicare beneficiaries with gout (n = 29,753)p value
Heart failure hospitalization
 Events/person-years19,407/3,064,8511477/115,128
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*6.3 (6.2, 6.4)12.8 (12.2, 13.5)
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)1.72 (1.63, 1.82)< 0.001
  Model 21 (reference)1.74 (1.65, 1.83)< 0.001
  Model 31 (reference)1.32 (1.25, 1.39)< 0.001
Myocardial infarction hospitalization
 Events/person-years27,553/3,039,7271479/114,759
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*9.1 (9.0, 9.2)12.9 (12.2, 13.5)
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)1.19 (1.13, 1.26)< 0.001
  Model 21 (reference)1.21 (1.15, 1.27)< 0.001
  Model 31 (reference)1.06 (1.00, 1.11)0.05
Stroke hospitalization
 Events/person-years22,657/3,050,3491152/115,356
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*7.4 (7.3, 7.5)10.0 (9.4, 10.6)
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)1.14 (1.07, 1.21)< 0.001
  Model 21 (reference)1.14 (1.08, 1.22)< 0.001
  Model 31 (reference)1.06 (1.00, 1.12)0.07
All-cause mortality
 Events/person-years145,623/3,101,3967013/117,902
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*47.0 (46.7, 47.2)59.5 (58.1, 60.9)
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)1.02 (1.00, 1.05)0.08
  Model 21 (reference)1.04 (1.02, 1.07)0.001
  Model 31 (reference)0.95 (0.93, 0.98)< 0.001
  1. Model 1 includes adjustment for age, gender, and race/ethnicity
  2. Model 2 includes adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, region of residence, and Medicare-Medicaid eligible/low-income subsidy
  3. Model 3 includes adjustment for variables in model 2 and diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and use of diuretics, statin (and statin intensity), and cyclooxygenase-2-selective and non-cyclooxygenase-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  4. The median (maximum) follow-up for all-cause mortality was 3.1 (10.0) years
  5. CI confidence interval
  6. *Per 1000 person-years