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Table 5 Fully adjusted hazard ratios for outcome events in the REGARDS study and Medicare cohort

From: Gout is associated with an increased risk for incident heart failure among older adults: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study

 Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)*Q test
REGARDS study (n = 5713)Medicare cohort (n = 839,059)p value
Heart failure1.97 (1.22, 3.19)1.32 (1.25, 1.39)0.10
Coronary heart disease/myocardial infarction1.21 (0.79, 1.84)1.06 (1.00, 1.11)0.55
Stroke0.83 (0.48, 1.43)1.06 (1.00, 1.12)0.39
All-cause mortality1.08 (0.86, 1.35)0.95 (0.93, 0.98)0.27
  1. Hazard ratios in REGARDS include adjustment for age, race, gender, region of residence, income, education, alcohol consumption, current smoking, body mass index, physical activity, dietary patterns, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and use of antihypertensive medication, diuretics, statin, aspirin, and cyclooxygenase-2-selective and non-cyclooxygenase-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. Hazard ratios in Medicare include adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, region of residence, Medicare-Medicaid eligible/low-income subsidy, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and use of diuretics, statin (and statin intensity), and cyclooxygenase-2-selective and non-cyclooxygenase-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  3. *Comparing older adults with versus without gout